Abnormal FINAL Ch 6

Abnormal FINAL Ch 6 - 1 Chapter 6 Stress Stress Coping and...

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Chapter 6 – Stress Stress, Coping, and the Anxiety Response The state of stress has two components: Stressor: event creating demands Stress response: reactions to the demands Influenced by how we appraise (a) the event, and (b) our capacity to react to the event effectively People who sense that they have the ability and resources to cope are more likely to take stressors in stride When we appraise a stressor as threatening, the natural reaction is fear Fear is a “package” of physical, emotional, and cognitive responses Stress reactions, and the fear they produce, are often at play in psychological disorders People who experience a large number of stressful events are particularly vulnerable to the onset of GAD, social phobia, panic disorder, and OCD, as well as other psychological problems Stress also plays a more central role in certain psychological disorders, including: Acute stress disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder Technically, DSM-IV-TR lists these patterns as anxiety disorders …as well as certain physical disorders called psychophysiological disorders These disorders are listed in the DSM-IV-TR under “psychological factors affecting medical condition” Stress and Arousal: The Fight-or-Flight Response The features of arousal and fear are set in motion by the hypothalamus Two important systems are activated: Autonomic nervous system (ANS) An extensive network of nerve fibers that connect the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to the body’s other organs Contains two systems: sympathetic and parasympathetic Endocrine system A network of glands throughout the body that release hormones There are two pathways by which the ANS and the endocrine systems produce arousal and fear reactions: Sympathetic nervous system Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway When confronting a dangerous situation, the hypothalamus first activates the sympathetic nervous system, which stimulates key organs either directly or indirectly When the perceived danger passes, the parasympathetic nervous system helps return bodily systems to normal 1
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Sympathetic Nervous System 2
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The second pathway is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) pathway When confronted by stressors, the hypothalamus sends a message to the pituitary gland, which signals the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids – the stress hormones – into the bloodstream Fight or Flight Response Differs The reactions displayed by these two pathways are referred to as the fight-or- flight response People differ in their particular patterns of autonomic and endocrine functioning and therefore also in their particular ways of experiencing arousal and fear… People differ in: Their general level of anxiety Called “trait anxiety” Some people are usually somewhat tense; others are usually relaxed Differences appear soon after birth
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This note was uploaded on 05/14/2008 for the course PSYCH 107 taught by Professor Bluhm during the Spring '07 term at Allegheny.

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Abnormal FINAL Ch 6 - 1 Chapter 6 Stress Stress Coping and...

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