Unit 2 - Chapter 4

Unit 2 - Chapter 4 - Zumbahl Chemistry 6th Edition Chapter...

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Zumbahl: Chemistry 6 th Edition Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solutions Stoichiometry Overview Aqueous solutions – a solution in which water is the dissolving solvent. 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent ∙One of the most valuable properties of water is its ability to dissolve many different substances. ∙Water consist of 2 hydrogens and 1 oxygen to make H 2 O. ∙The molecule H 2 O is a “bent” or V-shaped molecule with an angel of 105°. ∙The H-O bonds in water are covalent bonds with O having a slightly negative charge and H having a slightly positive charge. ∙Shown with a δ (delta) which indicates partial charge (less than 1 unit of charge). ∙Therefore, water is a polar molecule. Polar molecule – a molecule that has a permanent dipole moment. ∙This polarity gives water its ability to dissolve compounds. Hydration – the interaction between solute particles and water molecules. ∙The δ + H of water molecules are attracted to the negatively charged anions and δ - O of water is attracted to the positive charged cations. ∙Its important to note that when ionic substances (salts) dissolve in water, they break up into individual cations and anions. ∙For example: NaCl ( s ) Na + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) Solubility – the amount of a substance that dissolves in a given volume of solvent at a given temperature. ∙Water can dissolve: 1. Many nonionic substances. 2. Polar molecules 3. Ionic substances. ∙Water cannot dissolve nonpolar substances. 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes ∙A solution is made up of: 1. Solute – a substance dissolved in a liquid to form a solution. 2. Solvent – the dissolving medium in a solution. ∙One property of a solution is its electrical conductivity – the ability to conduct an electric current. Electrolytes – a substance when dissolved in water produces a solution that can conduct electricity. ∙There are 3 types: 1. Strong electrolytes – a material that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution that conducts an electric current very efficiently. 2. Weak electrolytes – a material which, when dissolved in water, gives a solution that conducts only a small electric current. 3. Nonelectrolytes – a substance that, when dissolved in water, gives a nonconducting solution. Strong Electrolytes ∙Strong electrolytes are substances that are completely ionized when they are dissolved in water. ∙There are several classes of strong electrolytes: 1. Soluble salts 2. Strong acids 3. Strong bases
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Zumbahl: Chemistry 6 th Edition Acids – a substance that produces hydrogen ions in solutions; a proton donor. Strong acids – an acid that completely dissociates to produce an H + ion and the conjugate base. ∙Examples: HCl, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , HClO 4 ∙These are aqueous solutions.
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