2007-11-13 HIST Second Exam

2007-11-13 HIST Second Exam - America's Empire...

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America’s Empire: Spanish-American War (1898) America wanted to invest in Cuba (sugar, tobacco etc) and wanted to dominate the Caribbean o Dispatched battleship (USS Maine) to aid Cubans, ship is exploded US demands Spain takes the blame, pays reparations, get out of Cuba o Teller Amendment: fighting to aid Cuba, not to form a state Spain declares war on U.S. (lasts 10 weeks) T.R. organizes Rough Riders to go to Cuba (after he resigns) Race Riots occur in Tampa Bay between black and white troops Navy successfully blockaded Cuba from Spain: US Victory o Treaty of Paris: America gets the Philippines as a colony from Spain, gets islands in the Pacific (Philippines aren’t free until after WWII) Next year: annexation of Hawaii – America the Empire Islands facilitate trade which was our goal o Panama Canal: takes 10 yrs, 75000 men/women, America on world stage The Great War (WWI) Europe controls 84% of the planet (mostly W. Europe) Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand triggers the war o Allies: Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy (later the US) o Central Powers: Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey, Ottoman Empire 1914: advances in weapons (machine gun, bigger shells), tanks, trench warfare o 10 million civilian and military died Woodrow Wilson runs in 1916: “Keep US out of War!” o In the US, large influx of immigrants (33M are in some way foreign) 1915: Germans sink the Lusitania (first to use chemical weapons) o US begins to supply Britain and the Allies Zimmerman Note: Germany proposes alliance with Mexico, advising them to invade the US Wilson declares war o Instituted a draft, raised income taxes War Industry Board: run by industrialists/Bureaucrats- told industries what they could produces Creel Committee: censored news from abroad Espionage Act: banned treasonous material from the mail Sedition Act: banned anything against the govt or favors the enemy Wilson’s Fourteen Points: reasons the US fought o Freedom of trade o Open treaties o Right of national self-determination 14 pts are selfless and set tone for US foreign policy for 20 th cent. Failed because Senate voted down the League of Nations 1919: A Return to Normalcy Treaty of Versailles: forms League of Nations, Germany takes the blame, pays reparations, gives land, disarms
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Domestic US: influenza kills 21M, epidemic spreads from US to the world Red Scare: In Russia during WWI, Bolsheviks overthrew the czar and created Communist Russia (behind Lenin) o There was a fear of the adoption of Communism in the US Strikes (Boston Police Strike) Bombings (letter bombs) Palmer Raids: Wilson’s Sec. of Defense sets up a series of raids trying to round up expected Bolsheviks/radicals (4000 ppl) Some were sent to the Soviet Union Some were sent to prison 1500 were let go Wilson tells Palmer to stop, Palmer accuses Wilson of radicalism Wilson invades Russia to stall Bolshevik Revolution (failure)
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2007-11-13 HIST Second Exam - America's Empire...

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