LM ch. 3 malott - differential reinforcement of alternative...

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Learning & Memory: Chapter 3 – Malott Escape (Negative Reinforcement) *Reinforcement by the removal or reduction of an aversive stimulus - aversive stimulus – a stimulus that is removed (def parallel to reinforcer) - we tend to maximize contact with reinforcers, but minimize contact with aversive stimuli - once addicted to alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine, they lose their aversive properties *The escape principle – a response becomes more likely if it has removed or reduced an aversive stimulus in the past - reinforcement by the removal of an aversive stimulus (negative reinforcement) and the procedure involved is an escape contingency *The 2 basic reinforcement contingencies are reinforcement and escape - children who exhibit a high frequency of maladaptive behaviors and a low frequency of adaptive behaviors, especially verbal behavior, are often labeled autistic
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Unformatted text preview: - differential reinforcement of alternative behavior – reinforce a functional equivalent behavior, a more appropriate alternative response- in most cases, you need to use a prompt to get the desirable alternative behavior going *Functional assessment – an assessment of the contingencies responsible for behavioral problems- 3 ways to do a functional assessment:-interview-observe-intervene *Sick social cycle – aversive response leads to an escape response, which reinforces the aversive response- parsimony – the use of no unnecessary concepts, principles, or assumptions- skinner began behavior analysis-past consequences cause current behavior- psychoanalysis -past experience causes current behavior by channeling unconscious mental forces...
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