LM Ch. 5 malott

LM Ch. 5 malott - resulting in a decreased frequency of...

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Penalty (Negative Punishment) Penalty contingent – the response-contingent removal of a reinforcer resulting in a decreased frequency of that response - penalty principle – a response becomes less frequent if loss of a reinforcer or a decrease in a reinforcer has followed it in the past - examples of penalties: o sports – loss of yardage, ball, puck, etc. o fines for running yellow lights - the penalty contingency involves a different reinforcer from the one maintaining the penalized behavior Response-cost contingency – the response-contingent removal of a tangible reinforcer resulting in a decreased frequency of that response - tangible items may include food, money, points, tokens, etc. Time-out contingency – the response-contingent removal of access to a reinforcer
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Unformatted text preview: resulting in a decreased frequency of that response-generally, time-outs should be brief – a couple of minutes or so-2 types of time-out o Exclusionary – the person is excluded from the immediate setting (sitting in the empty classroom next door) Traditional time-out, also called seclusionary o Nonexclusionary – the person remains in the immediate setting during time-out (sitting in a chair in the corner of the classroom) Thorndike’s Law of Effect-responses made just prior to “pleasant” events are more likely to be repeated, while responses made just prior to “unpleasant” events are more likely to diminish o pleasant events are called satisfiers o unpleasant events are called annoyers-the effects of our actions determine whether we will repeat them-...
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This note was uploaded on 03/05/2008 for the course PSYC 305 taught by Professor Lavond during the Spring '07 term at USC.

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