Ch13 Blood

Ch13 Blood - 1 The Blood The Blood Blood Blood s Fluid...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 The Blood The Blood Blood Blood s Fluid connective tissue s 3 - 4 times more viscous than water s Oxygen-rich blood is scarlet red s Oxygen-poor blood is dull red s pH must remain between 7.35 - 7.45 s Blood temp. is slightly higher than body temp. s 4 - 6 liters of blood in an adult s Makes up ~ 8% of body weight Functions of Blood Functions of Blood s Transportation s Regulation (body temperature & proper pH) s Protection Blood Constituents Blood Constituents Blood Blood Plasma Plasma s 91% water + 9% dissolved substances Dissolved Substances: s Plasma proteins (8%) s Albumin: most abundant plasma protein s maintains osmotic pressure s manufactured in the liver s Clotting factors: e.g. fibrinogen s manufactured in the liver s Globulins: antibodies (Abs) s Complement: a group of enzymes that aid Abs Blood Blood Plasma Plasma s Electrolytes, nutrients, respiratory gases & metabolic wastes (1%) s Nutrients: glucose, amino acids, lipids & vitamins s glucose is the principal carbohydrate in blood plasma s Electrolytes: chloride, carbonate & phosphate salts of Na + , K + ,Ca ++ and magnesium s Metabolic wastes (e.g. urea & uric acid) s Respiratory gases s Hormones s Drugs 2 Formed Elements Formed Elements s Red Blood Cells (RBCs)/ Erythrocytes (99.1%) s White Blood Cells (WBCs)/Leukocytes & Platelets /Thrombocytes (0.9%) Definitions s Myeloid tissue = blood producing tissue s Before birth , blood is formed in the: s yolk sac, liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes & red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) s After birth blood is formed in red bone marrow only Definitions s Stem cells s undifferentiated cells which have the potential to differentiate into any other cell types s Hemocytoblasts/ Pluripotent Hematopoietic stem cells s stem cells for all the formed elements s found in red bone marrow (in adults) s Hematopoiesis s process of blood cell formation Definitions s Reticulocytes = immature erythrocytes s Erythrocytes = mature RBCs s Erythropoiesis = process of erythrocyte formation s Erythropoietin (EPO): s a kidney hormone which triggers erythropoiesis if oxygen blood levels drop s Thrombopoietin : s a liver hormone which triggers thrombocyte formation if the levels of thrombocytes drop Hematopoiesis Hematopoiesis Erythrocytes Erythrocytes s Most numerous blood cells s outnumber WBCs 1000: 1 s Normal levels between 4-6 million/L s Main function is to carry oxygen s Anuclear with very few cell organelles s Biconcave disks s optimizes volume & surface for storage & transport of respiratory gases 3 Rouleaux Formation Rouleaux Formation s The stacking of neighboring RBCs c RBCs cannot carry the right amount of oxygen c fatigue & shortness of breath s RBCs sedimentation rate is usually increased s May be misinterpreted as agglutination (in ABO grouping) s Suggested underlying causes: abnormal serum proteins, excess dietary protein, altered blood pH (from stress, coffee, cigarettes, dehydration) Hemoglobin Hemoglobin s Iron-containing protein molecule s Binds strongly, but...
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2008 for the course HP 320 taught by Professor Islam during the Spring '08 term at USC.

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Ch13 Blood - 1 The Blood The Blood Blood Blood s Fluid...

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