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Ch14 Heart - Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular System A...

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1 Cardiovascular System + Cardiovascular System square6 A closed system consisting of the heart & blood vessels square6 Function is to deliver O 2 & nutrients to body tissues, and remove CO 2 & metabolic waste from tissues The Heart square6 About the size of a fist, cone- shaped, weighs < 1 lb square6 Sits between the lungs, in the middle cavity of the thorax square6 Pointed apex rests on diaphragm directed toward the left hip square6 Broader posterosuperior base points to the right shoulder square6 The great blood vessels emerge from the posterosuperior base The Heart Heart Covering and Heart Wall square6 Serous pericardium : a double sac membrane enclosing the heart filled with serous fluid in the pericardial cavity Heart Covering square6 Endocardium : innermost layer square6 Myocardium : middle thickest layer of cardiac muscle square6 Epicardium (visceral pericardium) square6 Parietal pericardium square6 Fibrous pericardium square6 outermost fibrous layer square6 protects & anchors the heart to surrounding structures
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2 Heart Covering square6 Intercalated discs = specialized cell membranes in the myocardium that allow rapid conduction of impulses between cardiac muscle cells The Heart Chambers The Heart Chambers square6 2 Atria = superior receiving chambers square6 interatrial septum divides the atria into a right & a left atrium square6 blood flows into them (from veins) under low pressure (not important in blood pumping activity) square6 2 Ventricles = inferior discharging chambers square6 interventricular septum divides the ventricles into a right & a left ventricle square6 the actual heart pumps square6 3 x thicker than the atria Arteries and Veins square6 Arteries = blood vessels leaving the heart square6 almost all arteries carry oxygenated blood square6 pulmonary arteries are the only arteries in the adult body that carry deoxygenated blood because they are going to the lungs square6 Veins = blood vessels entering the heart square6 almost all veins carry deoxygenated blood square6 pulmonary veins are the only veins in the adult body that carry oxygenated blood because they are coming from the lungs Associated Great Vessels Associated Great Vessels square6 Aorta square6 leaves the left ventricle square6 oxygenated blood square6 branches to systemic arteries square6 Vena cavae (2) square6 superior & inferior square6 enter the right atrium square6 deoxygenated blood square6 4 Pulmonary veins square6 come from the lungs square6 enter the left atrium square6 oxygenated blood square6 Pulmonary Trunk square6 leaves the right ventricle square6 splits into 2 right & 2 left arteries f4right to the lungs square6 deoxygenated blood
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3 Heart Circuits square6 The heart is a double pump (right & left sides act as separate pumps) 1.
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