Ch18 Respiratory System

Ch18 Respiratory System - 1 Respiratory System Respiratory...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Respiratory System Respiratory System Upper Respiratory Tract: Upper Respiratory Tract: The Nose The Nose s Only externally visible part of the respiratory system s External nares (nostrils) s Nasal cavity divided by a nasal septum s Conchae : projections on the lateral wall Nasal Cavity Nasal Cavity s Lined with respiratory mucosa: s traps incoming foreign particles s highly vascular (blood vessels warm & moistens air) s Olfactory receptors in the mucosa on the superior surface of the nasal cavity Nasal Septum Nasal Septum s Anterior septal cartilage (hyaline) s The Ethmoid bone comprises the upper portion s The Vomer comprises the lower portion Nasal Conchae & Palate Nasal Conchae & Palate Nasal Conchae (turbinate bones) s 3 projections on each lateral wall s increase surface area s cause air turbulence Palate: s Separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity: s Anterior hard palate (bone) s Posterior soft palate (muscle) Paranasal Sinuses Paranasal Sinuses s Cavities within the nasal bones s Frontal sinus s Sphenoid sinus s Ethmoid sinus s Maxillary sinus s Function to: s lighten the skull, and as s resonance chambers for speech 2 Pharynx (Throat) Pharynx (Throat) s Muscular passageway from the nasal cavity to the larynx 1. Nasopharynx: at the top behind the nasal cavity 2. Oropharynx: middle region behind the mouth 3. Laryngopharynx: at the bottom attached to the larynx s the oropharynx & laryngopharynx are common passageways for both air and food Tonsils Tonsils s Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids) high in the nasopharynx s Palatine tonsils in the oropharynx s Lingual tonsils at the base of the tongue Larynx (Voice Box) Larynx (Voice Box) s Inferior to the pharynx s Made of 8 rigid hyaline cartilages and the epiglottis s Thyroid cartilage (Adams apple) s protrudes anteriorly s largest hyaline cartilage, Structures of the Larynx Structures of the Larynx s Epiglottis: Guardian of Airways s protects the superior opening of the larynx by routing food to the esophagus & air to the trachea s Vocal cords (vocal folds) s vibrate with expelled air f sound s Glottis: the space between the vocal cords s closes during swallowing to help keep food & liquids out of the lower respiratory tract s Confined to the nose & throat s e.g. common cold, laryngitis etc. s If resistance of the upper respiratory mucosal membrane is reduced, the infection may spread to the lower respiratory tract Upper Respiratory Tract Upper Respiratory Tract Disorders Disorders Upper Respiratory Tract Upper Respiratory Tract Disorders Disorders s Sinusitis : inflammation of the sinuses s chronic sinusitis c polyps (grape-like tumor growths) s Deviated septum: s more prone to occlusion in allergic reactions f prevents proper sinus drainage f sinusitis s Epistaxis = nosebleed; may be due to s injury to nose, inflammation and/or ulceration of nasal mucosa, polyps, & sometimes with high BP 3 The Trachea (Windpipe) The Trachea (Windpipe) The Trachea (Windpipe) The Trachea (Windpipe)...
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2008 for the course HP 320 taught by Professor Islam during the Spring '08 term at USC.

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Ch18 Respiratory System - 1 Respiratory System Respiratory...

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