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REVIEW NOTES FOR FINAL DESCARTES *Innate Ideas *Independent of experience/ we are born with these ideas *Things that are known clearly and distinctly *Universe, God, self *Given by God *Res Cogitans/ Res Extensa *Res Cogitans= thinking material *Res Extensa= physical material =spiritual realm =human body =soul/will = I =external world =separate =universe *Methodological Doubt 1. Reject anything dubious 2. Divide complex questions into simple ones 3. Order thoughts from simple to complex 4. Review *Provisional Moral Code 1. Obey laws of country 2. Be resolute in actions and views 3. Conquer self- not fortune 4. Do not go against nature *I think, therefore I am *Cogito, Ergo, Sum *thinking= doubting= existence LOCKE *Reason *Mind acts as a filter for experience *The “blank slate”- we take everything in through our senses *We learn through experience *Compact VS Contract *Compact= more of an agreement *Contract= typically means more forceful * State of War *State of Nature *When humans are in a perfect state of nature, they are able to achieve true happiness *Humans exist with no governing supremacy *Property *Views property very negatively and says there should be none *Society is overwhelmed with the desire of obtaining property and wealth which leads to Corruption and destruction within civilization * Natural Rights *Natural Law *Natural laws = least amount of harm *No property = No injury
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ROUSSEAU *Pity *Pity is Rousseau’s central concept *Savages do not know good or evil *Natural pity is the source of generosity, mercy, and humanity *Pity in the state of nature takes place of laws *Inequality *There are natural inequalities of mind and body *There are no moral or political inequalities *Religiously, he says that God drew men out of a state of nature, therefore they are unequaled and this is because God wants it this way *State of Nature *Humans in this state are naturally physically robust *No property (similar to Locke’s beliefs) *Sex is occasional and without possessiveness *Believes civilization becomes unhealthy and corrupt *Women *Rousseau says God gave Adam enlightenment and laws directly *Adam and Eve are not equal because God “did not want it this way” *Adam and Eve were not in existent in a state of nature U.S. DOCUMENTS *Separation of Powers *Found under constitutional provisions *Also found here it is written: -Republican form of government -No tyranny of majority rule -No monarchy *Unalienable Rights *Life, liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness (possessions) *States’ Rights *Section # 10 (State Issues) *No independent treaties, federations, or compacts *No separate currency
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