POSC220 Midterm Review Terms

POSC220 Midterm Review Terms - Hannah POSC220 Midterm...

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Hannah POSC220 Midterm Review Terms Biocentric: Philosophy that emphasizes the fundamental right of living organisms to exist and to pursue their own goods; being centered on nature rather than humans. Anthropocentric: The belief that humans hold a special place in nature; being centered primarily on humans and human affairs. Scientific (utilitarian) conservation : Philosophy that resources should be used for the greatest good for the greatest number for the longest time (proponents of sustainable development). Sustainable development : A real increase in well-being and standard of life for the average person that can be maintained over the long-term without degrading the environment or compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Indigenous people: Native inhabitants to a particular region. In some cases, independently or largely isolated from governance or other cultures. Deductive reasoning: Deriving testable predictions about specific cases from general principles. Inductive reasoning: Inferring general principles from specific examples. Scientific theory: An explanation supported by many tests and accepted by a general consensus of scientists. Scientific method: A systematic, precise, objective study of a problem. Generally this requires observation, hypothesis development and testing, data gathering, and interpretation. (Scientific) model: Model that employs objective, scientific data. Natural experiment: Naturally occurring instance of observable phenomena which approach or duplicate a scientific experiment. Common research tool in fields where artificial experimentation is difficult. Manipulative experiment: Experiment in which variables (independent and dependent) are manipulated to test a particular outcome of an event. Dependent variable: Output or result of an action. Independent variable: Unconditional variable; remains constant regardless of circumstances. *Paradigm shift: Changes in philosophies or ideologies that result in a different framework for interpreting observations. (Eg. Shift from anthropocentric to biocentric thinking or beginning to
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conduct ourselves as though our resources are limited, rather than limitless.) Equilibrium: Condition of a system in which competing influences are balanced. Human activities often disrupt ecosystem equilibrium, ensuing a chain reaction of effects. Disturbance:
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POSC220 Midterm Review Terms - Hannah POSC220 Midterm...

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