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Unformatted text preview: 1 2 Reason and Experiment The Scientific Revolution Broadens
nAstonomical revolution--Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo Kepler, nThe Distinction between Heaven and Earth is challenged nNew directions in the language and rules of science 3 GALILEO Galilei(1564-1642) Galilei(1564-1642)
n Greatest radical of the Sci. Rev. n Insists on making science accessible n Convicted by the Inquisition in 1633. 4 Galileo's astronomy Galileo' nUse of the telescope suggests unity of earth & heavens nSiderius Nuncius (1610) nDialogue on the Two Great Systems of the World (1632)
n In Italian, not Latin 5 6 Discourse on Two New Sciences (1638)
nnew method of science ("hypothetico-deductive") ("hypothetico-deductive" 7 8 Galileo's Physics Galileo'
nthe laws of falling bodies [s t2] nthe motion of projectiles nthe motion of a pendulum nthe essence of the idea of inertia 9 Galileo & Experiment
nNote the role of the "ideal" condition in Galileo's experiments ideal" Galileo' nNote that Galileo asks how something happens, not why 10 11 Rene Descartes (1596-1649)
n Another rebel against authority n Everything explained as matter and motion 12 Kinds of matter:
nPrimary--subtle, fills all spaces, makes the sun & stars nSecondary--celestial space, in constant motion, swirling in vortices nTertiary--gross, earthly matter (also moon & planets) 13 Physical Observations and Formulations 1 nConservation of momentum (colliding billiard balls) nInertia (stated in the modern form) nOptical laws (esp. Law of Sines in describing refraction)
14 "The Mechanical Philosophy" Philosophy"
nThe world was to be described as a great machine, completely comprehensible in terms only of its various parts (matter) and their movements (motion) 15 Question:
nWhat is the difference between asking why something (such as a body falling to earth) happens and how it happens? Why is this important? 2 ...
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