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Unformatted text preview: 1 2 The Baconian Creed
"The Mechanization of the World Picture" Picture"
The world viewed as a giant clockwork Explanation in terms of mechanisms, not of purposes 3 Andreas Vesalius
De Humani Corporis Fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body)--1543 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Medieval dissection Changes in Physiology & Anatomy
New university study (Padua) New discoveries
l Gabriele Fallopio: Fallopian tubes Fallopio: l Fabricius: valves in the veins Fabricius: 12 William Harvey
English De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis (On the Motion of the Heart and the Blood) -1628
l Notice emphasis on motion l Argument by observation, experiment, and quantitative analysis l Not free of mystical elements 13 Galenic Physiology
Blood as two separate systems
l Veins l Arteries Ebb and flow of blood in these systems Lungs function solely to cool the blood Heart functions to infuse "vital spirit" spirit"
14 Harvey's Physiology Harvey'
Single system, with veins and arteries connection in two circulation systems 1 l Lesser system moves blood through the lungs l Great system moves blood through the body l Connections could not be seen -- but were inferred The heart is a pump--a machine
15 16 17 Circulatory system Harvey's Experimental Method Harvey' Francis Bacon (1561-1626) inductive method Novum Organum (the "New Means to Knowledge") (1620) Knowledge" 18 Interferences in Human Understanding idols of the tribe: weaknesses of human nature & the senses tribe: idols of the cave: weaknesses of the individual, due to education, personality, or cave: talents idols of the marketplace: weaknesses in society, especially language and its marketplace: mis-use idols of the theater: dogmas of philosophy, which interfere with understanding theater: 19 20 New Atlantis (1627) "Solomon's House" Solomon' House"
The glory of the state lies in the promotion of knowledge and "useful arts" arts" Inspiration for scientific societies in the 17th and 18th centuries 21 "Ancients" vs "Moderns" Ancients" Moderns"
What is the measure of the human condition? Does culture aspire to recover past glories or to create new ones? 22 Bacon on Discovery and Invention ...we should notice the force, effect and consequences of inventions which are nowhere more conspicuous than in those three which were unknown to the ancients; namely printing, firearms, and the compass. For these three have changed the appearance and state of the whole world; first in literature, then in warfare, and lastly in navigation; and innumerable changes have been thence derived, so that no empire, sect or star appears to have exercised a greater power and influence on human affairs than these three mechanical discoveries. 23 Bacon on Human Ambitions It will perhaps be as well to distinguish three species and degrees of ambition. First that of men who are anxious to enlarge their own power in their country, which is a vulgar and degenerate kind; next that of men who strive to enlarge the power and empire of their country over mankind, which is more dignified, but no less covetous. ... 24 The Highest Ambition
...But if one were to renew and enlarge the power and empire of mankind 2 in general over the universe such ambition (if it may be so termed) is both more sound and more noble than the other two. Now the empire of man over things is founded on the arts and sciences alone, for nature is only to be commanded by obeying her.
25 The Idea of Progress
Novel notion at the time Source of progress is knowledge and material well-being 26 The Rise of Organized Science
1662: Royal Society for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge, London 1666: Royal Academy of Sciences, Paris 27 Question: Who is more "modern," Francis Bacon or William Harvey? Why? modern," 3 ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2008 for the course HIST 175 taught by Professor Friedel during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.
- Fall '08
- Francis Bacon