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Outline - PowerCulture (9-29-03)

Outline - PowerCulture (9-29-03) - • automatic action •...

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1 1 Power and Culture 2 Power Non-human, inanimate power a key element in Western Civilization 3 Power Water Power Horizontal water wheels Vertical water wheels • Undershot • Overshot Locations Streams with fall Tidal 4 Vertical water wheels 5 Vertical water wheels 6 Overshot wheel 7 Applications: Grinding grain • Fulling – Beating cloth to soften • Forging – Iron making & working Paper making 8 Wind Power European origins Location where water power unavailable Valuable for pumping and drainage of low marshy areas (Netherlands, Eastern England, etc.) 9 Post mill 10 Tower mill 11 Dutch mill 12 Mechanisms Crank Flywheel Treadle Spring 13 New Attitudes
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2 • Work • Innovation • Nature • Individualism 14 The Clock--”key machine of the modern age” determinant use of energy
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Unformatted text preview: • automatic action • standardization • accurate time-keeping • time freed from nature 15 Predecessors • astronomical observation • clepsydra (water & sand clocks) 16 Clepsydra 17 Invention & Spread of Clocks • First appearance--13th century: Salisbury Cathedral clock • (notice--no face: rang bells to indicate hours) 18 Escapement the key mechanism 19 Verge and foliot 20 DiDondi “Astrarium”--14th century 21 Astrarium • Faces of the DiDondi Astrarium 22 Implications of the clock • Clock hours replace “natural” hours • Time consciousness spreads • Life & work more organized 23 Question • Why were new attitudes about power and machinery important in the late Middle Ages?...
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