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Unformatted text preview: 1 2 Science and Faith The Central Role of the Church nKey to all medieval culture--not just religion n"Secularization" is the process by which Church influence diminishes -- a Secularization" long process in European history 3 Emergence of a Christian philosophy-4th & 5th centuries nSt. Augustine uPlatonic philosophy an attractive foundation--concern with `souls' and the souls' ideal 4 The Arab Contribution nIslam the greatest influence on European thought in the early Middle Ages nIslam valued and preserved writings from classical antiquity, particularly those of Aristotle nIslam placed real value on natural philosophy 5 The Arab Contribution nMathematics nOptics nCommentaries on Greek science 6 Mathematics n"A" and "Al" words: Al" uAlgebra uArithmetic uAlgorithm nThe Zero adopted from Hindu mathematics-- resulting in "Arabic" numerals Arabic" 7 Optics nMost important experimental contributions nAl-Hazen (965-1038) ustudied the structure of the eye and made observations on the properties of mirrors. 8 Transmission of Greek science nThe most important of the Arabic contributions to European science nTransmission of key authors, with influential commentaries uAverros (1125-1198) Averro tAristotle, with commentaries uAvicenna (980-1037) tGalen (medicine) 1 9 Twelfth Century--Period of transmission The Crusades begin u1st Crusade, 1096-1099 [Jerusalem captured, but lost some years later] u2nd Crusade, 1147-1149 [a complete failure] u3rd Crusade, 1189-1192 [some short term success] nArabic retreat from Europe 10 The Translators nGerard of Cremona (ca. 1175) nMichael Scot (ca. 1220) 11 Universities nBegin with cathedral schools uChartres nPermanent universities uOxford uPadua uParis 12 Assimilation of Aristotle--Scholasticism nAlbertus Magnus (c.1206-1280) nSt. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) nEffort to find harmony between Christian dogma and Aristotelian philosophy nRespect for observation, but superiority of revelation 13 Experimentalism nOptics nMagnetism 14 Experimentalists nRobert Grosseteste (c.1168-1253) uoptics nPierre di Maricourt [Peter Perigrinus] (mid-13th century) Perigrinus] umagnets nRoger Bacon (c.1214-1294) uWide range of experiments 15 Oxford School (Nominalism) n"Names are names; things are things" things" nJust giving a name to something does not explain it uDuns Scotus 2 uWilliam of Ockham "Ockham's Razor" Ockham' Razor" 16 Paris School nJean Buridan (c.1297-1358) nNicolas Oresme (1320-1382) t"Impetus" Impetus" tQuantitative explanations 17 Question: nHow did the Christian Church promote the development of Natural Philosophy (Science) in the Middle Ages? 3 ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2008 for the course HIST 175 taught by Professor Friedel during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.
- Fall '08
- European History