Outline - Scientific Revelution (10-13-03)

Outline - Scientific Revelution (10-13-03) - 1 2 The...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 2 The Scientific Revolution Idea of "Scientific Revolutions" Revolutions" } Does science change by "revolutionary" jumps? revolutionary" 3 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Thomas Kuhn) } Normal Science } Paradigms } Anomalies } Revolution >> New Paradigm 4 THE ARISTOTELIAN BACKGROUND } The Problem of the Planets 5 6 The Cosmic Geometry of Claudius Ptolemy } "Geostatic":5 Planets, Sun, Moon, & Stars circle the Earth Geostatic" } Epicycles & other devices to make the system "work" work" 7 8 COPERNICUS } De Revolutionibus Orbium Celestium (1543) On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres 9 Copernican System: } "Heliostatic": Heliostatic" Sun stays still, near the center } Planets (including Earth) orbit around the sun } Stars are stationary outside the planetary orbits 10 11 Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) } The best observational astronomer } Tychonic System: "Geostatic" but "Heliocentric" Geostatic" Heliocentric" 12 Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) } Mathematician } Astrologer Combined mystical with respect for observation (worked with Tycho Brahe) Brahe) } Accepted Copernican system 1 13 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion: Kepler' } 1st Law: Planets orbit in ellipses, with the sun at one focus Law: 14 15 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion: Kepler' } 2nd Law: Planets sweep out equal areas in equal times (and thus are traveling faster when near the sun) 16 17 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion: Kepler' } 3rd Law: Ratio of squares of periodic times of orbits are proportional to the ratios of the cubes of the mean distances from the sun 18 19 GALILEO Galilei(1564-1642) Galilei(1564-1642) } Great Radical of the Scientific Revolution } Supported Copernican System 20 Telescopic Observations: } separate stars in the Milky Way } phases of Venus } mountains on the moon 21 Telescopic Observations: } moons of Jupiter--the most startling and important of his discoveries Jupiter-- } bulges of Saturn (not distinct enough to see rings) } sun-spots 22 Radical Publications of Galileo } published the first findings in his Siderius Nuncius in 1610. } published his great defense of Copernicus in 1632: Dialogue on the Two Great Systems of the World 23 Question: } What was "revolutionary" about the new astronomy of Kepler? 2 ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2008 for the course HIST 175 taught by Professor Friedel during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.

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