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Unformatted text preview: 1 2 The Scientific Revolution
Idea of "Scientific Revolutions" Revolutions"
} Does science change by "revolutionary" jumps? revolutionary" 3 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Thomas Kuhn)
} Normal Science } Paradigms } Anomalies } Revolution >> New Paradigm 4 THE ARISTOTELIAN BACKGROUND
} The Problem of the Planets 5 6 The Cosmic Geometry of Claudius Ptolemy
} "Geostatic":5 Planets, Sun, Moon, & Stars circle the Earth Geostatic" } Epicycles & other devices to make the system "work" work" 7 8 COPERNICUS
} De Revolutionibus Orbium Celestium (1543) On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres 9 Copernican System:
} "Heliostatic": Heliostatic" Sun stays still, near the center } Planets (including Earth) orbit around the sun } Stars are stationary outside the planetary orbits
10 11 Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
} The best observational astronomer } Tychonic System: "Geostatic" but "Heliocentric" Geostatic" Heliocentric" 12 Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
} Mathematician } Astrologer Combined mystical with respect for observation (worked with Tycho Brahe) Brahe) } Accepted Copernican system 1 13 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion: Kepler'
} 1st Law: Planets orbit in ellipses, with the sun at one focus Law: 14 15 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion: Kepler'
} 2nd Law: Planets sweep out equal areas in equal times (and thus are traveling faster when near the sun) 16 17 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion: Kepler'
} 3rd Law: Ratio of squares of periodic times of orbits are proportional to the ratios of the cubes of the mean distances from the sun 18 19 GALILEO Galilei(1564-1642) Galilei(1564-1642)
} Great Radical of the Scientific Revolution } Supported Copernican System 20 Telescopic Observations:
} separate stars in the Milky Way } phases of Venus } mountains on the moon 21 Telescopic Observations:
} moons of Jupiter--the most startling and important of his discoveries Jupiter-- } bulges of Saturn (not distinct enough to see rings) } sun-spots 22 Radical Publications of Galileo
} published the first findings in his Siderius Nuncius in 1610. } published his great defense of Copernicus in 1632: Dialogue on the Two Great Systems of the World 23 Question:
} What was "revolutionary" about the new astronomy of Kepler? 2 ...
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