Outline - ScientificTech (11-17-03)

Outline - ScientificTech (11-17-03) - 1 2 The Spread of...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 2 The Spread of Scientific Technology Themes for 19th and 20th century technology: 1. 2. 3. Science Scale System 3 New Relationship between Science and Technology Science Discovers Industry Applies Man Conforms l Motto for the 1933 World's Fair, Chicago 4 Key areas of Science-Technology Interaction Power Chemicals Electricity 5 Thermodynamics Understanding steam engines Sadi Carnot-- Reflections on the Motive Power of Heat (1824) Carnot-- 6 Chemical industry (including materials) Advances in chemisty & materials are still largely empirical -- based on practice and observations BUT -- the new chemistry yields new tools for the exploration of materials and their transformation Change comes from both practice and theory 7 Alkalis Key to the manufacture of many substances l Glass l Soap 8 Making soap Soap -- reaction between fat and lye Lye -- usually sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (NaOH) NaOH is made by reacting sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) Na2CO3 derived from seaweed ash 9 Leblanc process--"artificial soda" process--" soda" Artificial soda production: 1 Salt + Sulfuric acid fi Sodium Sulfate + Hydrogen Chloride Sodium Sulfate + Charcoal fi Sodium Sulfide + CO2 + O2 Sodium Sulfide + Limestone (CaCO3) fi Soda + Calcium Sulfide Pollution, the Alkali Acts & Chlorine 10 Synthetic dyes Dyes traditionally from plant and animal sources -- supplies limited Alternatives possible due to rise of organic chemistry A.W. Hofmann 11 Coal tar dyes William Henry Perkin 12 13 Rise of Chemical Industry Rubber & Plastics Charles Goodyear--vulcanization (1839) 14 Iron & Steel Henry Cort's "puddling" Cort' puddling" Henry Bessemer (1850s) l "Steel without fuel" : the Bessemer converter fuel" 15 Electricity Luigi Galvani l "Animal electricity" electricity" 16 Electrochemistry Humphry Davy 17 Basic Electrical Phenomena Hans Oersted l electromagnetism, 1820 18 Michael Faraday electromagnetic induction, 1831 19 Public Science The Royal Institution 20 Telegraphy Early experiments in Britain: Cooke & Wheatstone--1837 21 The telegraph in America May 24, 1844--First Morse Line: Washington-Baltimore 1846--Washington--Boston joined 2 22 A Telegraph System 1848--every state east of the Miss. (ezcept Fla.) joined (ezcept Fla.) 1856--Western Union organized 23 Telephone Alexander Graham Bell (1876) 24 Rise of the Professional Inventor Electrical technology particularly suitable for independent invention The case of Thomas A. Edison l Improving the telegraph l Improving the telephone 25 26 Edison and the "Invention Factory" Factory" Novel inventions-- the phonograph 1877 27 Electric Lighting Arc Lighting--1850s (limited scale); 1870s (street lighting, light houses, etc.) Incandescent light--Edison, 1879, installed by mid-1880s 28 Other Applications of Electricity Electroplating--1841 Motors--1880s (first streetcar system, Richmond, 1886-87) Aluminum--1886 (production at Niagara Falls by the late 1890s) 29 Question How does science change the nature of invention in the 19th century? 3 ...
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This note was uploaded on 05/04/2008 for the course HIST 175 taught by Professor Friedel during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.

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