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Unformatted text preview: 1 2 The Empire of Steam
} Greatest technological symbol of the Industrial Revolution 3 First important technology seen as a product of science
} Improvement of steam engines fostered scientific investigation and new forms of engineering 4 The key power technology of industrialization Water used more widely at first Steam removed constraints Steam revolutionized transport 5 The Factory System:
} Power technologies important in the factory context } Factories concentrate capital, labor, and materials Allow larger scale of production Make maximum use of power and machinery Allow more control over labor and materials 6 Water Power
} Water wheel the most used power source in early factories } Great range of uses } Large scale factory power systems in late 18th century } Improving water power 7 John Smeaton
} Measuring efficiency of water wheel designs } Overshot wheels judged the most efficient (greatest power for the size of wheel or amount of water) } A model of engineering research 8 Steam Power
} Two ways to get work from steam } Expansion The most obvious to us, and the key to modern turbines. } Displacement & condensation The historically key means, since it was behind the first practical steam engines.
9 Science of the armosphere
} The atmosphere presses down everywhere with a force of about 14 lbs. per sq. inch. How to make this force do work. 10 Torricelli (barometer) 1 11 12 13 14 von Guericke (power of vacuum) Pascal (atmospheric pressure) Boyle (air pump) The Problem of mines
} Some special needs for work--mining and the problem of flooding. } >>importance of coal (wood shortages, availability in Britain) } >>depth of mines as surface supplies run down 15 Thomas Savery's "Miner's Friend" (1698)
} >>no moving parts } >>not self-acting } >>used enormous amounts of fuel } >>very dangerous (required pressures of 8-10 atmospheres to expel water) 16 17 Thomas Newcomen's "Atmospheric Engine" (about 1712)
} >>good only for pumping (single, down action) } >>also used much fuel } BUT--self-acting, could be made quite large 18 19 20 The Newcomen Engine Newcomen scale James Watt
} Instrument maker } Working with models } Observed inefficiencies in Newcomen engine } Measurement & analysis 21 Newcomen problems
} Working with models } The problem of scale 22 Analytical approaches
} Heat is lost } BUT--How much heat? Experiments & measurements "Latent heat" & scientific theory heat" } Designing an alternative 2 23 24 Watt's separate condenser Watt' Boulton & Watt engine
} Separate condenser } Double action } Fly-ball governor } Rotary motion (sun-and-planet) 25 A New Model of Power
} The Watt steam engine was typically a very large machine--it was not very effective in smaller sizes } The Watt engine was expensive, but slowly became an important power source where water power was unavailable or inadequate } The Watt engine became the most important model of new machinery for the 19th century 26 Further development of steam power
} High pressure steam engines appear at the end of the 18th century Richard Trevithick in England Oliver Evans in the United States } High pressure engines were less efficient in fuel but could be made much smaller than low pressure (Watt) engines } These became the basis for new transportation form in the 19th century
} How does the development of the steam engine in the 18th century reflect new relationships between science and technology? 3 ...
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- Fall '08
- Industrial Revolution