lab_13_Qualitative_organic_analysis - Part 1 Tests for...

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Part 1: Tests for alcohols, aldehydes and ketones The first part of the lab is “wet chemistry” in which you will actually carry out up to 6 tests for alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in order to identify your unknown. There are 5 primary alcohols (methanol, propanol, pentanol, hexanol, heptanol), 4 secondary alcohols (2-propanol, 2-butanol, cyclohexanol, 2-octanol), 2 tertiary alcohols (2-methyl-2-propanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol), 2 aldehydes (benzaldehyde, crotonaldehyde = 2-butenal), and 7 ketones (acetone, butanone, 2-pentanone, 2- hexanone, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone, 2-octanone). Of the 7 ketones, all except cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone are methyl ketones. The Lucas test (HCl + ZnCl 2 catalyst) is based on a Sn1 reaction of the soluble alcohol to form the insoluble alkyl chloride. If you get cloudiness very fast, you have a tertiary alcohol since they undergo Sn1 substitution reactions the fastest. Secondary alcohols react slowly, and the test is negative (no cloudiness) for primary alcohols. If you have one of the long chain alcohols (heptanol or 2- octanol) the test is not very helpful since the alcohol doesn’t dissolve in the reagent.
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