notes for test 3 - Chapter 12 Dutch welcomed religious...

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Chapter 12Dutch welcomed religious outcasts and free thinkersHighest standard of living in Europe1570’s Dutch rebelled and won independence from the SpanishDutch took over spice and silk trade from the Portuguese, founded colony at Cape Good HopeDutch took importation of sugar from the Americas and transportation of slaves from West Indies from the PortugueseAfter 1640’s most slaves were captured by Dutch1650’s Dutch refining the most sugarDutch had most formidable warships in EuropeDutch victories caused Portugal to rebel against Spain and win their freedom in 1640Dutch merchants could travel by ship up the Hudson River as far as AlbanyReach further north by canoe through Lake George and Lake Champlain and the Richelieu River and the Mohawk River1614 formed Ft. Nassau as a year-round trading presence (later named Ft. Orange)1625 Dutch founded New Amsterdam (New York) on the Hudson RiverUpriver Dutch needed Indians (Iroquois Five Nathions) for tradeDownriver the Dutch thought the Hudson River Indians (Algonquians)were a nuisanceDutch came to trade or farm—made no missionary effortIn 1639, the WIC opened trade to any colonistWilliam Kieft, governor, demanded a tax on the Algonquians in 16391643 Kieft massacred 80 Algonquians in ManhattanThe resulting revenge killed Anne HutchinsonIn 1644, Captain John Underhill led the massacre of over 500 Algonquians1655 Pieter Stuyvesant took over Swiss settlement of DelawareWIC appointed governor and advisory council in New Netherland, no elected officialsOfficially only Dutch Reformed Church could hold church servicesJews had most freedom in New Netherland than in any other colony because they were good for businessNew Netherland became the most religiously and ethnically mixed colony, the Dutch were actually a minorityPrimarily family groups, farmers and artisans rather than indentured servantsPuritans relocated from New England to settle on Long Island (1/5)1/10 New Netherlands inhabitants were enslaved Africans owned by the WICSlaves enjoyed ½ freedom, permitted to marry, own property in return for annual paymentDutch women kept maiden names, women had legal identity and could own propertyNew Netherland married couple formed economic partnership that shared in profits and lossesColonization on New Netherland faltered because of its reputation for arbitrary government and Indian warsDutch had less reason to leave home than the English—Dutch economy was good and there was tolerance
English and Dutch were trading rivals in 1650’s and 1660’sDutch shippers had trade from English colonists because they charged 33% less than the EnglishThree fundamental principles of the English Navigation ActsoOnly English ships could trade with any English colonyo

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