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Final exam O chem study guide

Final exam O chem study guide - primary and secondary...

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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY CHAPTER study guide in addition to page 5 of Exam 4: Basic alkane nomenclature Tertiary, Secondary, Primary carbons Definition of unsaturation sp, sp 2 , sp 3 hybridization in organic molecules Characteristics of multiple bonds: hybridization, isomerism, lack of rotation Geometric isomerism: cis- trans - isomers Relationship between structure and physical properties such as melting point, boiling point: e.g. spherical shape versus linear (zig-zag) shape -- former more volatile because of less contact between molecules. Recognize different functional groups: Alkenes, Alkynes, Ethers, Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic acids, Esters, Amines, Aromatic rings. What constitutes oxidation/reduction in organic molecules? Gain of oxygens (or other e- neg. atoms, and loss of hydrogens both constitute oxidation. Oxidation products of
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Unformatted text preview: primary and secondary alcohols. -- Aldehydes (if mild conditions), Ketones from secondary. Distinguish primary, secondary, tertiary amines Oxidation product of an aldehyde -- Carboxylic acids Reaction between acids and alcohols to yield esters + water Addition polymerization of alkenes Condensation polymerization (to give polyesters, polyamides such as Nylon, etc. ) Byproduct of condensation polymerization -- a small molecule such as water Deduce monomer units from a polymeric structure Repeating unit of a polymer -( )-n Characteristics of a strong polymer -- molecular weight, high crystallinity, strong intermolecular forces (e.g. H-bonding as in Nylon), lack of branching (e.g. High density polyethylene) Crosslinking -- connects individual polymer chains imparting strength and rigidity to polymer (e.g. vulcanized rubber, Bakelite)...
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