Substance Disorders - Substance Disorders Psychology 127...

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Substance Disorders Psychology 127 Abnormal Psychology UCLA
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Substance Abuse vs. Dependence Substance abuse Use of drug interferes with ability to function Fails to meet work or family obligations No physiological dependence Substance dependence (addiction) Involves either tolerance or withdrawal Tolerance Greater amounts of substance are needed to produce the desired effect Withdrawal Physiological and psychological consequences when individual discontinues or reduces substance use Restlessness, anxiety, cramps, death
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PREVALENCE (Youth) Household Study (8 th , 10 th , and 12 th grade): Use in Past 30 Days (Johnston, 1996) Cigarettes (x>1/2 pack): 4.3, 9.4, 13.0% Alcohol (been drunk): 9.6, 21.3, 31.3% Marijuana (any use): 11.3, 20.4, 21.9% Cocaine/Crack (any use): 1.3, 1.7, 2.0% Hallucinogens (any use): 1.9, 2.8, 3.5% Stimulants (any use): 4.6, 5.5, 4.1% Inhalants (any use): 5.8, 3.3, 2.5%
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DEVELOPMENTAL THEMES Steady increase in use with age Pathways characterized by “discontinuities” “Progressive” stages of substance use: alcohol/nicotine – marijuana – hard drugs Linkages with individual-level, peer, family, school, and social context systems (neighborhood) – transactional approach Multiple outcomes: mental health, human capital, family dysfunction, instability of relationships
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Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Discontinuation of alcohol in heavy user: Anxiety Depression Weakness Restlessness Difficulty sleeping Muscle tremors Face, fingers, eyelids, other small musculature Elevated BP, pulse, temperature
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Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Polydrug abuse Many users abuse multiple substances e.g., cigarettes, cocaine, marijuana Synergistic Some combinations produce stronger reaction Alcohol and barbiturates May cause death Alcohol and heroin Alcohol reduces amount of heroin needed to produce lethal dose
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Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse Lifetime prevalence (Kessler et al., 1994) 20% for men 8% for women 8.5% of Americans met DSM criteria for abuse or dependence (NESARC, 2004) Rates of dependence among younger women are increasingly approaching that of men Binge drinking 5 drinks in short period Often linked to fraternity & sorority membership
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Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse White adolescents and adults more likely to abuse alcohol than African Americans Gap narrows for high school drop outs Dropping out associated with greater drug and alcohol use for both whites and African Americans (Obot & Anthony, 1999, 2000) Abuse common in Native American tribes (Yetman, 1994)
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Short-term Effects of Alcohol Enters the bloodstream through small intestine metabolized by the liver Effects vary by concentration Concentration varies by gender, height, weight, liver efficiency Biphasic effect Initially stimulates Sociablility and well-being Later depresses Increase in negative emotions
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Short-term Effects of Alcohol Effect of ingesting large amounts Impaired speech and vision
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