Substance Disorders

Substance Disorders - Substance Disorders Psychology 127...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–10. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Substance Disorders Psychology 127 Abnormal Psychology UCLA
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Substance Abuse vs. Dependence Substance abuse Use of drug interferes with ability to function Fails to meet work or family obligations No physiological dependence Substance dependence (addiction) Involves either tolerance or withdrawal Tolerance Greater amounts of substance are needed to produce the desired effect Withdrawal Physiological and psychological consequences when individual discontinues or reduces substance use Restlessness, anxiety, cramps, death
Background image of page 2
PREVALENCE (Youth) Household Study (8 th , 10 th , and 12 th grade): Use in Past 30 Days (Johnston, 1996) Cigarettes (x>1/2 pack): 4.3, 9.4, 13.0% Alcohol (been drunk): 9.6, 21.3, 31.3% Marijuana (any use): 11.3, 20.4, 21.9% Cocaine/Crack (any use): 1.3, 1.7, 2.0% Hallucinogens (any use): 1.9, 2.8, 3.5% Stimulants (any use): 4.6, 5.5, 4.1% Inhalants (any use): 5.8, 3.3, 2.5%
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
DEVELOPMENTAL THEMES Steady increase in use with age Pathways characterized by “discontinuities” “Progressive” stages of substance use: alcohol/nicotine – marijuana – hard drugs Linkages with individual-level, peer, family, school, and social context systems (neighborhood) – transactional approach Multiple outcomes: mental health, human capital, family dysfunction, instability of relationships
Background image of page 4
Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Discontinuation of alcohol in heavy user: Anxiety Depression Weakness Restlessness Difficulty sleeping Muscle tremors Face, fingers, eyelids, other small musculature Elevated BP, pulse, temperature
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Polydrug abuse Many users abuse multiple substances e.g., cigarettes, cocaine, marijuana Synergistic Some combinations produce stronger reaction Alcohol and barbiturates May cause death Alcohol and heroin Alcohol reduces amount of heroin needed to produce lethal dose
Background image of page 6
Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse Lifetime prevalence (Kessler et al., 1994) 20% for men 8% for women 8.5% of Americans met DSM criteria for abuse or dependence (NESARC, 2004) Rates of dependence among younger women are increasingly approaching that of men Binge drinking 5 drinks in short period Often linked to fraternity & sorority membership
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse White adolescents and adults more likely to abuse alcohol than African Americans Gap narrows for high school drop outs Dropping out associated with greater drug and alcohol use for both whites and African Americans (Obot & Anthony, 1999, 2000) Abuse common in Native American tribes (Yetman, 1994)
Background image of page 8
Short-term Effects of Alcohol Enters the bloodstream through small intestine metabolized by the liver Effects vary by concentration Concentration varies by gender, height, weight, liver efficiency Biphasic effect Initially stimulates Sociablility and well-being Later depresses Increase in negative emotions
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 41

Substance Disorders - Substance Disorders Psychology 127...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 10. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online