Lecture #12 Adam Smith - Week 6 Wednesday Lecture#12 Adam...

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Week 6 Wednesday- Lecture #12: Adam Smith and the Scottish Enlightenment Laws that are at work in human economics and society is what the Scottish enlightenment was all about. Scotland was small, but full of enormous differences. Lowlands temperate, highlands wilderness. Scotland in the 18 th century- The difference between highlands and lowlands very marked -Poverty of the highlands; prosperity of the low lands; gentry in the lowlands seen as improvers -1707 for a variety of complex political reasons, the Scottish parliament was abolished and Scotland now had to send its representatives to London. Scotland may become a separate nation soon. Incorporated into the London parliament, loss of independence; England becomes Britain. -Political divisions caused the dissolution of parliament: Jacobites vs Whigs -Jacobites- followers of the old Stuart kings. James II followers. James II thrown out 1688, and defeated by William of orange. James II had a son and grandson, from the time of his exile to 1745, there were always plots to bring son and grandson back as king of Scotland. -Whigs- supporters of the Hanoverian monarchy and “improvers” Supported William and mary and revolution of 1688. Constant intrigue about jacobites -1715 and 1745 – open rebellion led by Jacobites Prince Charlie grandson of James II went into Scotland and tried to take Scotland. Result was a bloodbath, and defeated the French/prince Charlie, but then they proceded to slaughter jacobites and jacobite sympathizers. This is a kind of genocide. The events of 1745 set up a wedge in Scottish political life that lasted to the 20 th century. People who sided w/ the whigs, English, thought that what happened in 1745 was justified. One of these were Adam Smith Scottish Enlightenment was a protestant urban establishment led by Presbyterian moderates and thought that scotland’s future lay in a collaboration of partnership with the English. This liberal protestant culture was most visible in the Scottish universities, because the clergy who taught in the universities subscribed to these views. Most of Europe, continental catholic Europe, universities were hostile to enlightenment values, because they undermined religion. Scottish universities bastion of enlightenment. Deism, skepticism, atheism, and atmosphere of liberal conversation that characterized Scotland. Hume and Ferguson and Smith felt comfortable here. One of the problems that the Scottish enlightenment addressed is how can we explain the great disparities of economic and social standing in Europe and in the world. -Large cast of characters led by Amad Smith and David Hume -Liberal Protestant establishment particularly in Edinburgh. -Universities play a key role, freethinking and skepticism commonplace
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What they did is they ate up the travel literature and didn’t leave british isles and were fascinated by native Americans. 2 kinds of thought- Savages, without religion, that whole thing. The more sophisticated thinkers believed deeply that in some fundamental sense all human beings are the same, theres some kind of soul some kind of mind and emotions that are universal. And so when you see societies that are so
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