hist 102 midterm identifications - who/what when...

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who/what, when, description, significance Pico della Mirandola : (mid-end 15th century) esoteric italian renaissance philosopher oration of the dignity of man Humans have not been assigned a fixed place in the universe We determine our destiny Ability to use free will for good/bad Purpose of free will: better ourselves/society We are also responsible for our misfortunes (can’t blame others) Aspired to synthesize the Hebrew, Greek, and Christian traditions Niccolo Machiavelli (end 15th-early/mid 16th century) Florentine statesman and political theorist Evil, when necessary, is permissible THE PRINCE No divine origin to kingship no events attributed to God’s will Rejected the principle that kings should adhere to Christian morals state= pure human creation Success as king/prince= concern for preserving and strengthening the state’s power and ignore morality Ruler could utilize religion to unite subjects and foster obedience to law Gutenberg’s Printing Press Mid 15th century Created by johannes gutenberg Political ideas started to spread in europe; reading, speaking, writing Lower classes could leave written records Gutenberg bible one of the first bible’s Let to spread of religion and (interpretation and questioning of leadership?) Christopher Columbus Mid 15th-begin 16th century Italian navigator funded by the spanish government to find a passage to the Far East 1492 reaches america (the “New World”) thinking it was india destruction of all american civilizations Martin Luther end 15th century-mid 16th Pious german monk and theologian direct attack on the basic teachings of the Church Precipitated reformation of the western christian church “justification by faith” ninety five theses (1517)
Statements of beliefs attacking church practices/indulgences Primary catalyst for the protestant reformation translates the new testament into german “reformation of the common man” “priesthood of all believers” (anyone can become a priest) Good deeds do not get you into heaven John Calvin Early to mid/late 16th century Founded calvinism (reformed catholicism) God is all knowing salvation-a grace of God (predestined at birth) public officials- vicars of God Peace of Augsburg (1555**) mid 16th century Stopped fighting between Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) and the Protestant princes, allowing them to choose which religion would be in their kingdom Made lutheranism a legal religion in the predominantly catholic holy roman empire Did not extend recognition to calvinist Ended protestant reformation Did not show how to resolve conflicts Elizabeth I of England 1533-1603 (mid 16th-begin 17th century) Queen of england (r.1558-1603), succeeded half sister, mary tudor Rejected marriage proposal from Philip II when mary died Brought protestantism back to england Rejected calvinist presbyterian Greatest challenges came from the Calvinist Puritans and Philip II The Spanish Great Armada 1588 (late 16th century) between spain and england

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