History final exam study guide - Possible essay topics 1...

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Possible essay topics: 1. Two new countries emerged on the map of Europe between the years 1848 and 1871 : Italy and Germany. How did this happen? What roles did Cavour and Bismarck play in these processes? What were their plans and how did these plans worked? Compare and contrast these two politicians, their specific plans, and actions. Did the Italian and German unification change the political map of Europe? How so? )
Count Camillo Cavour of Piedmont, became the P.M under King victor Emmanuel, and sympathised with the aspirations of the middle class to create a liberal, economically advanced and independent Italian state. Cavour supported the British and the French in the Crimean war to earn himself a seat at the Congress of Paris, where he boosted the presence of Piedmont and also met with Napoleon III of france to discuss Italian liberation. Napoleon and the French were traditional opponents of Austria…. Cavour’s plan for Italy did not include Austria, so he wanted Austria to be ousted from the northern parts of Italy. Cavour and Napoleon agreed to support each other when war occurs between Piedmont and Austria. After a few bloody battles and victories of the french- Piedmont's, Napoleon ceased fighting due to the bloodshed and the fact that Prussia began mobilizing their forces to support Austria. Napoleon betrayed Cavour and made a deal w/ Austria, which gave Lombardy to Piedmont but allowed Venetia to remain in the Austrian Empire. Giuseppe Garibaldi led an uprising in the south italian kingdoms of sicily and naples, from which he gained an army of 57,00 men. Cavour was threatened by this uprising and power, so he sent men to southern italy to confront the uprising. Garibaldi wilfully surrendered as he believed in a unified Italian state under the King of Piedmont- Sardinia. The Unification of Italy was achieved in september of 1860. For Germany this happened because: Germany was a collection of over 30 city states loosely in a confederation. Prussia, in 1850, sought superiority and leadership in unifying German states, however had to step down due to the Austrian opposition. A few years later, the prussian king, Wilhelm I, strengthened the prussian forces by expanding size of the state and the army. Wilhelm I ignored/ overruled the parliament of prussia in expanding the state and army.

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