exam 1 review - Geology 1010-002 Exam 1 Review Sheet Fall...

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Geology 1010-002 Exam # 1 – Review Sheet Fall 2007 Note: this is a review sheet – use it as a guide to help you study; it is not the exam Be sure to review the Homework Questions and Clicker Questions too. Chapter 1 – Introduction (Sections: focus on these: The Science of Geology, The Nature of Scientific Inquiry, Early Evolution of the Earth, Earth’s Internal Structure) Some key terms or ideas: Observation, hypothesis, testing, theory Nebular hypothesis Crust, mantle, inner core, outer core, lithosphere Some key questions: How is it thought that the solar system, earth, and moon formed? How do the layers of the Earth differ in terms of thickness, density, temperature and composition? What is the scale of Earth’s topography? (max relief on Earth’s surface) + 10 km/ -10km= total relief 20km Chapter 2 – Plate Tectonics (Sections: All Sections) Some key terms or ideas: Plate tectonics - Earths surface is devided into a few large, thick plates the move slowly and change in size Tectonic plates- there are 13 tectonic plates that create and shape the earths surface Lithosphere- outer rigid shell of the earth, plates are composed of this material (solid and strong), includes the upper most part of the mantle Asthenosphere- Part of the upper mantle beneath the lithosphere. Solid but weak; hot near melting point, capable of flow. Divergent- Marked by oceanic ridge. Plate splits, new oceanic crust is formed by separating plates. HOT, tension cracks, normal faults, shallow earth quakes, basaltic eruptions. ex: mid Atlantic ridge
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Convergent - one plate hits another; one plate slides under the other causing uprising (mountains) ( volcanoes) ex: India- Asia collision, Himalaya mts. Deep ocean trench shows subduction zones Transform - Off sets divergent boundaries. 3 scenarios- 2 spreading ridges, 1 spreading ridge 1 subduction zone, 2 subduction zones Pangaea supercontinent (Greek for “all lands”)- a super continent that once was comprised of all the continents and has since then separated due to continental drift Continental Drift - due to seafloor spreading and tectonic plates sitting on a very rocky and partially liquid mantle, continents were able to move Remanent Magnetism (paleomagnetism) - the natural permanent magnetism within a rocky body ( fossil magnetism) Inclination - Magnetic Reversals- in earths history the magnetic field has reversed polarity periodically ( north becomes south, south becomes north) Normal and Reverse Polarity - normal polarity: a magnetic field the same as that which presently exists. Reverse polarity: a magnetic field opposite to that which currently exists Magnetic Timescale - paleomagnetic reversals can be recorded by basalt at mid ocean ridges Oceanic Ridge- a divergent boundary at which new oceanic crust is formed Seafloor-spreading hypothesis - new oceanic crust is formed at mid ocean ridges, at divergent boundaries Deep ocean trench- narrow, long, depression at seafloor caused by oceanic crust subducting under continental crust Volcanic arc - a chain of volcanoes formed near a subducting oceanic plate Hot spot
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