Anthro Lecture 1-10 - Anthro 7 Week 1(2 Evolution by...

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Anthro 7 Week 1 (2) 00:32 Evolution by Natural Selection: the theory Hierarchical classification o Linnaeus: Classification of organisms (1700s) o Branching pattern of diversification   more closely related organisms=  closer on the branches. Adaptation: organized complex   a trait designed by natural selection   a  trait that owes its existence to a history of non-random natural selection o Echolocation Bats produce high-frequency sounds, uses echoes to get information  about objects Similar to rarad/sonar o Teeth: why do baby mammals grow them? To eat solid food   but causality can only work forward in time  growing teeth happens before the need to eat solid food. Baby mammals grow teeth because mammals that had the teeth  mutation in the past out-performed the mammals that didn’t have teeth.  Only the teeth-mammals survived. Darwin and A.R. Wallace answer the questions of adaptation and hierarchical  classification by answering the great question of  the origin of species . o Species: a group of organisms that interbreed in nature and is  reproductively isolated from other species. o Fixity of species: until late 1700’s the predominant belief that species were  recently (last few thousand years) created manifestations of ideal  essences (created by a higher power). Discoveries of extinct organisms helped to change this belief. o Evolution= Descent with Modification- Darwin o 1832: Darwin, who couldn’t find a career he liked (tried medicine, clergy  work) took up the position of naturalist on the H.M.S. Beagle   sailed on a  5 year exploratory voyage around the world Darwin made an extensive collection of plants and animals on his  journey
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