Anthro Lecture 2-7

Anthro Lecture 2-7 - Anthro Lecture 2/7 I. Monkeys can...

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Anthro Lecture 2/7 I. Monkeys can predict what others will do a. Macaques and baboons often grunt when they approach others b. Grunts are reliable predictor of peaceful interaction c. Grunting facilitates friendly contact d. Grunting facilitates infant handling II. Ability to understand others’ thoughts, beliefs is called “theory of mind” a. In humans, TOM develops in early childhood b. Common experiment to test for TOM c. “False belief test” d. M and M pencil test – up to the age of three, the adult will think that a pencil is in the tube e. After the age of 3, children say M and M’s III. Theory of Mind a. TOM is necessary for deception and imitation i. Deficit in TOM is thought to be central to the disorder autism b. TOM can be broken down into three components, of increasing sophistication i. Understanding what others can see or hear (perception) ii. Understanding others’ intentions iii. Understanding others’ knowledge/beliefs c. Monkeys consistently fail TOM tests d. How much TOM apes have is controversial e. What do apes know about what others can see? i. Call and Tomasello 1994 ii. Subjects: 2 captive orangutans that know how to point as a signal iii. Task: point to the desired drink (the larger one)
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iv. Conditions: 1. Experimenter has left the room after setting up the drinks 2. Experiment has walked to the opposite side of the room and turned his back on the subject 3. Experimenter faces the drinks and the subject with eyes closed 4. Experimenter faces the drinks and the subject with eyes open v. Results 1. Subjects behavior and coded “blind” 2. Very little pointing in conditions 1 and 2 3. Lots of pointing in condition 4 4. Only a home-raised orangutan refrained from pointing in condition 3 vi. Povinelli and co-workers have argued that chimpanzees don’t know about what others can see vii.Chimpanzees given the choice of which to human to beg from (using species-typical palm-out begging gesture) when the two humans differ in some way viii. Chimps consistently prefer to beg in someone facing towards them ix. Do not prefer 1. Human with eyes open to human with eyes closed 2. Human with blindfold over mouth to humans over eyes 3. Human with bucket on their shoulder with a bucket on their head 4. Human with back turned while looking over her shoulder at the chimp to human with back turned while looking away from chimp x. Yet, the same chimps do follow the gaze of humans 1. Look in the direction that an experimenter looks, even if the
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This note was uploaded on 03/05/2008 for the course ANTHRO 7 taught by Professor Manson during the Winter '98 term at UCLA.

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Anthro Lecture 2-7 - Anthro Lecture 2/7 I. Monkeys can...

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