TORTS OUTLINE wendel - Torts Fall 2005 Professor Wendel I...

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Torts Fall 2005, Professor Wendel I. Overview: A. “A tort is a civil wrong, other than breach of contract, for which the court will provide a  remedy in the form of an action for damages.” B. Goals of tort law: 1. Compensation – should loss fall on injured   or be spread among the π   population of people who create risks of injury? 2. Corrective justice – what constitutes a legal wrong which I will be required to  rectify? Have to make the wrong right to the extent possible. Have to  compensate for above background risks or non reciprocal risks. 3. Optimal Deterrence – level of precaution taking by actors that is neither too  lax nor too stringent. B<PL C. Lucky/Unlucky hypo – Two negligent drivers  1. Lucky – speeds doesn’t hit anyone 2. Unlucky – speeds, hits someone a. Are they both morally responsible? Yes, but both are not the cause  of the accident so only Unlucky is liable b. Shouldn’t both contribute to the pool to compensate people? (maybe  its called car insurance) INTENTIONAL TORTS GENERAL   Damages – compensatory  or punitive  (also nominal  in intentional torts) Compensatory – restore   to pre-accident self; preponderance of evidence  π Punitive – punish  ; higher standard of evidence, clear and convincing evidence, higher burden  than proving a prima facie case ’s lawyer’s argument: a reasonable person on the jury could perceive the situation… and if Π   reasonable minds disagree…matter of fact for jury to decide Trial court has gate-keeping role when judge gives jury orders *Focus on Joe or Jane Reasonable Person (RP), NOT  π   I. LIABILITY FOR BATTERY a. Modern concept: “intentional, unprivileged, and either h/o contact w/ ’s person”  π i. Not battery if any elements eliminated ii. Restatement §13/ §18 :   Battery: Harmful/     Offensive      Contact      
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1. Actor is subject to liability if  voluntarily acts  w/the  intent  (or  w/ knowledge of substantial certainty ) to cause  h/o  w/person,  or  imminent apprehension of such contact  and a h/o contact  results  directly  or  indirectly Restatement § 18 b. PF Case:  i. Voluntary       act     :     1. Not  a spasm or passing out/falling ii. Intent:     1.  must intend contact, not the extent or resulting harm;  a. Vosburg      – (  kicks   in school, causing  ’s knee melt π π   down);   intended the contact, not necessarily the  resulting harm; thin-skulled   rule π b.
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