Ch_10 - Chapter 10 Bonding Theory and Molecular Structure...

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Chapter 10 Bonding Theory and Molecular Structure • VSEPR Method • Molecular Orbital Theory 2 Molecular Geometry The molecular geometry , or the shape of a molecule is described by the geometric figure formed when the atomic nuclei are imagined to be joined in straight lines .
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3 Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion ( VSEPR ) • based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons in bonded atoms repel one another An electron group is any collection of valence electrons, localized in a region around a central atom, that repels other groups of valence electrons Can be: a single unpaired electron • a lone pair of electrons • one bonding pair of e- in a single covalent bond • two bonding pairs of e- in a double covalent bond • three bonding pairs of e- in a triple covalent bond 4 Electron-Group Geometries How can electrons on the central atom be arranged so they are as far apart as possible? 2 electron groups – linear 3 electron groups – trigonal planar 4 electron groups – tetrahedral 5 electron groups – trigonal bipyramidal 6 electron groups – octahedral
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5 VSEPR Notation Table 10.1 in the text summarizes various possibilities for molecular geometries in relation to electron-group geometries In the VSEPR notation used to describe molecular geometries, the central atom in a structure is denoted as A , terminal atoms as X , and the lone pairs of electrons as E AX 2 E 2 6 A VSEPR Summary The optimal repulsion arrangement is opposite ends of a line 2 electron groups
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7 The optimal repulsion arrangement is the corners of a triangle—note the planarity With a lone pair, the geometry is essentially the same 3 electron groups 8 The optimal repulsion arrangement is the corners of a regular tetrahedron—four equal triangular faces There can be one or two lone pairs on the central atom 4 electron groups
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Ch_10 - Chapter 10 Bonding Theory and Molecular Structure...

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