Ch_09 - Chapter 9 Chemical Bonds Chemical bonds hold atoms...

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Chapter 9 Chemical Bonds C hemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions fixed in ionic solids. Chemical bonds are electrical forces that balance attraction and repulsion between electrically charged particles. 2 Electrostatic Attractions and Repulsions
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3 Energy of Interaction 4 The Lewis Theory of Chemical Bonding: An Overview Electrons, particularly valence electrons , play a fundamental role in chemical bonding. When metals and nonmetals combine, valence electrons usually are transferred from the metal to the nonmetal atoms giving rise to ionic bonds In combinations involving only nonmetals, one or more pairs of valence electrons are shared between the bonded atoms, producing covalent bonds In losing, gaining, or sharing electrons to form chemical bonds, atoms tend to acquire the electron configurations of noble gases. ( Octet rule )
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5 Lewis Symbols •I n a Lewis symbol , dots around the chemical symbol represent the valence electrons. • In writing Lewis symbols, the first four dots are placed singly on each of the four sides of the chemical symbol. • Dots are paired as the next four are added. • Lewis symbols are used primarily for those elements that acquire noble-gas configurations when they form bonds. 6 Ionic Bonds Two ions formed in a reaction between a metal and a nonmetal have opposite charges and strongly attract one another and form an ion pair
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7 Ionic Bonds The highly ordered solid collection of ions is called an ionic crystal The net attractive electrostatic forces that hold the cations and anions together are ionic bonds Formation of the ionic bond represented by Lewis symbols: 8 Ionic Bonds Stoichiometry is an important consideration … Octet (or duet) rule is followed in each case
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9 Covalent Bonding Covalent bond Pair of electrons shared between bonded atoms A Lewis structure shows the bonded atoms with the electron configuration of a noble gas; that is, the atoms obey the octet rule (H obeys the duet rule ) By double-counting the shared electrons in a Lewis structure, each atom appears to have a noble gas configuration 10 Lewis Structures The shared pairs of electrons in a molecule are called bonding pairs In common practice, the bonding pair is represented
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This note was uploaded on 05/06/2008 for the course CHEM 103 taught by Professor Forgot during the Spring '07 term at CUNY City.

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Ch_09 - Chapter 9 Chemical Bonds Chemical bonds hold atoms...

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