Ch_04a_1002

Ch_04a_1002 - Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous...

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1 Some Electrical Properties of Aqueous Solutions • Reactions of Acids and Bases • Precipitation Reactions • Reactions Involving Oxidation and Reduction Water: the universal solvent • ¾ of Earth’s surface • water in living organisms Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 2 4.1 Some Electrical Properties of Aqueous Solutions
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3 • Electric current is a flow of charged particles. • One type of current is electrons flowing through a wire, from negative potential to positive potential. Conduction Illustrated 4 • Another type of current: anions and cations moving through a solution as shown here. • Cations move to the cathode , anions move to the anode .
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5 • Why do some solutions conduct electricity? • An early hypothesis was that electricity produced ions in solution, and those ions allowed the electricity to flow. • Arrhenius’s theory: – Certain substances dissociate into cations and anions when dissolved in water. – The ions already present in solution allow electricity to flow. Arrhenius’s Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation 6 Nonelectrolyte Solutions Solutions of nonelectrolytes don’t conduct electricity since the solute is exclusively as molecules. • Nonelectrolytes include: – Most molecular compounds – Most organic compounds (most of them are molecular) e.g. CO, sugars, alcohols
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7 Strong/Weak Electrolytes Strong electrolytes dissolve and break apart completely into ions and are good conductors of electricity. Weak electrolytes partially ionize and are poor conductors of electricity. 8 • Strong electrolytes include: – Strong acids (HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , HClO 4 ) – Strong bases (IA and IIA hydroxides) – Most water-soluble ionic compounds • Weak electrolytes include: – Weak acids and weak bases (CH 3 COOH, H 3 PO 4 , NH 3 ) – A few ionic compounds Electrolytes movie
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This note was uploaded on 05/06/2008 for the course CHEM 103 taught by Professor Forgot during the Spring '07 term at CUNY City.

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Ch_04a_1002 - Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous...

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