Anthro Lecture 2-19 - Anthro Lecture 2-19 I II III IV V VI...

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Anthro Lecture 2-19 I. Complexity of foraging tasks may favor bigger brain and slower development a. Extractive foraging and hunting require subtle knowledge a. Resources vary across sites, so skills must be learned b. Need to acquire information favors long period of learning c. Need to master complex skills favors larger brain II. Long juvenile period may favor longer life span a. Prolonged juvenile period increases generation time b. Will only be favored if there is sufficient payoff c. Big investment will pay off more if amortized (returns are gained) over long period III. Reduced dimorphism a. Food sharing and division of labor may favor reduced dimorphism b. In foraging societies, men produce bulk of surplus calories c. Surplus production supports women and children d. If children rely on males’ contribution, selection favors investing males e. Selection on male-male competition reduced f. Reduced competition linked to reduced sexual dimorphism IV.Back to the past: complex foraging in the Pliocene a. Oldowan toolmakers link ape-like hominids to more human-like hominids b. Contemporary foragers rely on complex foraging techniques c. Complex foraging strategies are linked to important features of human life history d. Did Oldowan toolmakers have complex foraging strategies? e. Clues from archaeological record
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i. What were tools used for? ii. Conduct experiments to assess what tasks ancient tools are useful for iii. Assess kinds of wear patterns produced by various kinds of tasks V. Some tools likely to have been used for foraging tasks a. Modern experiments suggest flakes were good for butchering game i. Stone tools make distinctive cut marks on bones b. In S. Africa, bones were evidently used as digging tools i. Wear patterns suggest use in digging mounds VI.Oldowan tools are found near piles of animal bones a. Did hominids use tools to butcher game there?
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