Anthro Lecture 2-21

Anthro Lecture 2-21 - Anthro Lecture February 21 I Homo Erectus a In Asia called H erectus b Associated with Mode 1 tools(Oldowan tools c Compared

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Anthro Lecture February 21 I. Homo Erectus a. In Asia, called H. erectus b. Associated with Mode 1 tools (Oldowan tools) c. Compared with H. ergaster i. Thicker skull ii. Larger brow ridges iii. Sides of skull slope more steeply iv. Point at back of skull more pronounced v. Sagittal keel (smaller than saggital crest) d. Cognitive differences between Homo erectus and Homo ergaster? i. Some people think H. erectus continued use of Mode 1 tools due to cognitive differences ii. But H. erectus survived very difficult environmental conditions 1. Cold winters in China much like Chicago today iii. Some think H. erectus didn’t need hand axes because they used bamboo to make good cutting tools 1. 800 kya, meteor struck southern China, fires destroyed huge area of forest 2. While grasslands predominated, hand axes (Mode 2) tools 3. When forest regenerated, Mode 1 tools were made II. Climate changes a. In the middle of the Pleiostene, things get cold and complicated i. 900-300 kya 1. Many long, cold periods of glaciations 2. Many short, warmer interglacial periods
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3. Great variability in climate b. When it is cold, forests shrink, grasslands and deserts spread c. When it is warm, forests replace grasslands, grasslands replace deserts d. When deserts covered N. Africa, animal species could move between Europe and Asia, but not between Africa and rest of world e. When glaciers recede, and grasslands replace desert, animals could move between Africa and other parts of the world III. Larger-brained hominids emerged in Middle Pleistocene a. Derived features i. Brain size 1200-1300 cc ii. Higher foreheads (compared with ergaster or erectus) iii. More rounded skull iv. Sides of skull are more vertical b. Ancestral features i. Large brow ridges (pencil test, roll off) ii. Thick cranial bones iii. Large, prognathic face iv. No chin v. Robust bodies c. Not clear where/when these creatures first evolved i. Specimen – 800 kya in Zambia (dates disputed) ii. 800-500 kya in Spain iii. Ranged through Africa and W. Europe iv. Given name Homo heidelbergensis IV.H. heidelbergensis a. Hunted big game i. On island of Jersey, piles of bones of mammoths and wooly rhino found at base of cliff
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1. Some are adults, too big for most predators 2. Carcasses have been butchered with stone tools 3. Skull cavity opened to extract brain tissue 4. Bones have been sorted by body parts ii. Have also found wooden spears alongside masses of horse bones b. New tools i. 300 kya, H. Heidelberg started making flake tools
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This note was uploaded on 03/05/2008 for the course ANTHRO 7 taught by Professor Manson during the Winter '98 term at UCLA.

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Anthro Lecture 2-21 - Anthro Lecture February 21 I Homo Erectus a In Asia called H erectus b Associated with Mode 1 tools(Oldowan tools c Compared

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