Takaful-Exam-Part-A-English - CHAPTER A1 INTRODUCTION TO...

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1 CHAPTER A1 INTRODUCTION TO ISLAMIC MUAMALAT LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of the chapter, the candidate will be able to: Understand the concept of Islam, the objectives ( maqasid ) and sources of shariah . Understand the prohibitions in muamalat . Understand and explain the rules of muamalat contracts. A1.1 INTRODUCTION The Arabic word 'Islam' simply means 'submission', and derived from the word meaning 'peace'. In a religious context it means complete submission to the will of Allah (SWT) Islam is not mere religion but a “ deen ”, meaning „the way of life‟. It touches upon the material as well as spiritual dimensions of human existence. Allah (SWT) emphasized the completeness of Islam in the following Quranic verse; Meaning: “This day I have perfected your religion for you, complete My blessing on you and approve Islam as the way of life for you” (al-Maidah: 3) 1.1.1 The Concept of Islam Broken down to its bare elements, Islam comprises of aqidah (a set of beliefs), shariah (a set of laws) and akhlaq (a code of moralities). The concept of the shariah is not only to govern man in the conduct of his life in order to realize Divine will, but covers all behavior; spiritual, mental as well as physical. Thus, the shariah principles are more than law, covering the total way of life that includes faith ( iman ) and practices ( amal ), personal behavior, legal and social transaction. As such, Islam is also known as shariah al- kubra that encompasses the way of life as ordained by Allah (SWT).
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2 Islam can be classified into the following: Aqidah Aqidah is defined as the firm belief without any wavering or doubt in Allah (SWT), His Prophets and Angels, the Hereafter, Holy Book and predestination. It is the main foundation in Islam and a starting point in order to be a good Muslim. It is reflected by the activities done by him. The Prophet Muhammad (saw) described Islam as a building where its foundation is aqidah . The foundation of aqidah in Islam is the six pillars of faith ( arkan al-iman ). Akhlaq Practice of virtue, morality, and manners in Islamic theology and philosophy. It consists of relationship between man and Allah (SWT), man and man and man and other creatures. Shariah Shariah is the set of rules derived from both the Quran and the authentic traditions ( sunnah ) of the Prophet Muhammad (saw) and the scholarly opinions ( ijtihad ) based on Quran and Sunnah . The shariah contains categories and subjects of Islamic law called the branches of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). Fiqh Ibadat The purification ruling that governs the relationship between man and Allah (SWT) such as prayer, fasting, zakat, jihad and some other forms of worship are dealt under this heading. Fiqh Munakahat The ruling related to family law. This area deals with marriage, divorce, inheritance, guardianship and other related matters.
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3 Fiqh Jinayat It is known as criminal law of Islam. This area deals with major offences like illicit sex ( zina ), theft ( sariqah ), murder, etc.
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