Anthro Lecture 1-15 - Anthro Lecture 1/15 A Gregor Mendel a...

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Anthro Lecture 1/15 A. Gregor Mendel a. To resolve Darwin’s difficulties we need to understand the nature of inheritance: it is particulate, not a blending process. b. Green peas c. Not found useful until 16 years after his death B. Some essential basic cell biology a. Organisms consist of two kinds of cells: somatic cells and gametes b. Cells contain a nucleus. i. Nucleus contains DNA, which condenses into chromosomes c. Part of a chromosome with information for one trait: gene i. Chromosomes come in pairs (23 in humans) ii. One paternal and one maternal d. When somatic cells divide (mitosis), chromosomes are doubled so each daughter cell has the same number of chromosomes (the diploid number) as the original cell e. Gametes (sex cells: eggs and sperm) have only 1 chromosome from each pair; they are haploid and are produced by a different process: meiosis. There’s one paternal and one maternal chromosome in each pair. C. Mendel’s expirements a. Focused on traits that have two forms i. Green/yellow seeds ii.
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