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Unformatted text preview: History 115 23/01/2008 12:04:00 ← Medieval Europe • 500-1500 (early: 1000, central “high”: 1250, late: 1500) • go back to 300 (late antiquity) to really understand the development of medieval Europe • 500-1000: Early=”dark ages” (limited written sources) • 1250-1500: The crisis of the 14 th century: period of dramatic environmental change (mini ice age), economic depression and crisis, the plague. • geographic expansion: includes eastern Europe, and the Middle East The Later Roman Empire • The Empire of Gold 14 AD to 180 AD (from Augustus to Marcus Aralias) • Civitas: city within the Roman Empire • Villa: Roman aristocrats lived on large estates that ran on slave labor were call villa • The Empire of Iron and Rust-The Crisis of the Third Century: The military pressure on the Roman frontier, the army becomes professional (helps create small towns on the frontier), recruitment becomes a problem, recruit enemies, the pay to armies will become increasingly important, curia: would transfer the revenues to Rome, the taxes became a heavy burden in the Empire • The Coloni: are free tenants on a large estate, Roman citizens but have given up their mobility so they will have protection and economic prosperity, do not have as much requirements to the large estate as the slaves do • Hutted slave: very small plot of land which is for basic subsistence and are settled along the coloni, the slaves owe labor on the large estate • Diocletian: rose through the military ranks to become an emperor, cut the empire into 4 sections, • Drastic Surgery-The Reforms of Diocletian (284-305) and Constantine (306- 337) • The Tetrarchy: solution for succession crisis; divided the empire into halves, two emperors-the emperor of the East is the one with the most power, the new emperors would be hand picked based on merit • Military Reform • Tax Reform-Iugum/Caput • Edit on Prices 301: wanted to help control extreme inflation, it froze the prices of goods, did not work • Freezing of Occupations: The sons of soldiers would be forced to join army, sons of bakers would follow…etc; occupations were locked into jobs of their family Late Roman and Early Medieval society: Long-term political, social and economic trends: • Regionalization: Rise of the provinces o Rise of regional imperial Residences near the Frontiers (Trier, Milan, Constantinople, Antioch). New local political networks in the provinces regional economies • Ruralization- tilt of production from town to countryside; growth of the large estate • Militarization of society-3 rd century on-walled cities; Garrison towns (vici);...
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- Spring '08
- History, later Roman empire, Roman Empire Historical