Chapter 10- Water and Electrolytes

Chapter 10- Water and Electrolytes - Jennifer Bishop...

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Jennifer Bishop April 10, 2008 Chapter 10: Water and Electrolytes An Ecological Perspective 1. you can go for weeks/months without eating, but only days without water 2. the body has limited storage for water 3. clean water is a diminishing resource a. the greatest populations in the U.S. are in near-desert areas b. demand for water keeps growing, but water is being depleted’ c. we keep polluting water 4. much of the world lacks access to clean water Body Water Content and Distribution 1. Content a. Adults are about 50-60% water i. Blood plasma (fluid part of blood) is 90% water ii. Muscle is 72% water iii. Fat tissue is 20-35% water b. We can measure how much of our body is water, fat, and lean tissue from the body impedence analysis (pass electric currents through the body) i. High water content = more lean mass, less body fat ii. Dehydration causes falsely high report of high body fat 2. Body Fluid Compartments a. Two: intracellular (water inside cells), and extracellular (water outside cells) i. Extracellular: blood plasma, interstitial fluid (space between cells), synovial fluid (fluid between joints), ii. Extracellular makes up 40% water, intracellular makes up 60% Functions and Properties of Water 1. The Universal Solvent a. Solvent: substance in which solutes are dissolved b. Solute: substance dissolved in a solvent c. No other fluid dissolves in as many different substances as water i. Lipids do not dissolve in water d. All our biochemical reactions occur in water e. Electrolytes i. Electrolyte: a chemical compound carrying an electrical charge and separated into ions in a solution ii. Minerals occur in nature as salts: metal containing compound formed by the reaction of an acid and a base 1. metals are too reactive to exist in pure form 2. Example: table salt (NaCl) 3. salts dissociate into ions when dissolved in water
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a. dissociate: molecule breaking in 2 parts, each carrying an electrical charge known as an ion b. each of the 2 fragments has a charge (+ and -) called an ion c. Sodium = + ion, Chloride = - ion; these ions are electrolytes d. Ions conduct electricity; water without them won’t iii. Role of electrolytes 1. transmission of impulses, muscle contraction, regulation of heartbeat, maintain fluid balance 2. cation: positive ion, anion: negative ion a. Sodium is the major extracellular cation b. Potassium is the major intracellular cation c. Chloride is the major intra/extracellular anion iv. Acid/Base Balance 1. When water dissociates, it forms a – ion (hydroxyl: H + O) and a + ion (hydrogen: H) a. If you have more hydrogen than hydroxyl, the base will be acidic b. If you have more OH ions than hydrogen ions, the base will be basic 2. PH Scale: the log of the concentration of H ion in a solution; a measure of acidity a. Logarithm: power to which a base must be raised to equal a given number b. PH scale goes from 0-14; 0 acidic, 14 basic, 7 neutral c. ACIDIC: stomach acid, vinegar, OJ, urine d. BASIC: ammonia, pancreatic juice
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Chapter 10- Water and Electrolytes - Jennifer Bishop...

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