Chapter 9- Vitamins, Minerals, and Electrolytes

Chapter 9- Vitamins, Minerals, and Electrolytes - Jennifer...

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Jennifer Bishop April 3, 2008 Chapter 9: Vitamins, Minerals, and Electrolytes Micronutrients 1. Muscle Synthesis, Preservation, and Repair a. Zinc i. Zinc helps the body to make new cells ii. Function: regulates tissue growth and injury repair iii. Deficiency: don’t grow/heal well from injury 1. Athletes need more zinc for muscle growth/repair 2. Immune system needs zinc to function well iv. Sources: meat, seafood, dairy, whole grains, seeds v. Toxicity: supplements reduce absorption of other minerals b. Potassium i. Major positively charged intracellular ion (inside cells) ii. Function: muscle contraction, nerve impulses iii. Deficiency: lost in prolonged sweating, inadequate intake (muscle cramping) iv. Sources: fruits/vegetables, sports drinks, juices v. Toxicity: excess excreted by kidneys c. Iron i. Part of myoglobin - protein of muscle that transfers Oxygen from blood to muscle cells ii. Functions: needed for muscle building, energy metabolism d. Chromium i. Function: helps synthesize muscle protein/glycogen ii. Sources: unprocessed food, whole grains iii. Toxicity: causes kidney and chromosome damage e. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) i. Functions: protein synthesis (of non-essential amino acids), muscle repair/growth ii. Deficiency: limits lean tissue development iii. Sources: many foods iv. Toxicity: neurological damage f. Vitamin C i. Function: helps synthesize collagen : primary protein in connective tissues ii. Deficiency: poor wound healing, deterioration of connective tissue iii. Sources: fruits/vegetables iv. Toxicity: higher than 2000 mg/day causes GI upset, oxidative damage 1. scurvy: disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C 2. Antioxidants a. Protect muscle/red blood cells from oxidative damage b. Free radicals: reactive oxygen that damages cell components (cause heart disease and cancer) i. Created during exercise, so more antioxidants are needed to protect us ii. Exercise helps us dispose of free radicals too c. Types of Antioxidants i. Vitamin C 1. water soluble vitamin ii. Vitamin E 1. fat soluble vitamin 2. Deficiency: hemolysis: a breakdown of red blood cells
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3. Sources: seeds, nuts, seed oils, vegetables, BEST SOURCE: wheat germ 4. Toxicity: interferes w/vitamin K absorption iii. Selenium 1. part of the glutathione peroxidase : group of antioxidant enzymes 2. Sources: meat, seafood, whole grains 3. Toxicity: loss of hair and nails iv. Carotenoids 1. vegetables can contain about 500, best = beta carotene 2. Functions: used to make vitamin A 3. Sources: fruits, vegetables (more colorful ones, especially orange ones) 4. Toxicity: oxidative damage, mostly from supplements d. Erythropoiesis (synthesis of red blood cells) i. Erythrocytes : red blood cells ii. Hemoglobin transports carbon dioxide from muscles/tissues to lungs
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This note was uploaded on 05/14/2008 for the course CLASSICS 322 taught by Professor Beneker during the Spring '08 term at University of Wisconsin.

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Chapter 9- Vitamins, Minerals, and Electrolytes - Jennifer...

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