3. Research Design • A research design is a plan for conducting the research work. • A series of guide to enable the researcher to progress in the right direction to achieve goal. • Research design helps to decide on what, where, when, how much, by what means in relation to the research. • The design includes an outline of what the researcher will do from writing the hypothesis and its operational implications to the final analysis of data. Definition of Research Design • “A research design is the specification of methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed. It is the overall operational pattern of framework of the project that stipulates what information is to be collected from which sources by what procedure”. • Good design will ensure that the information obtained is relevant to the research questions. The information obtained through objective and economical procedures. Need for research design • To facilitate the research for smooth sailing of the various research operations. • To make research efficient-maximum information against minimum cost. • To reduce error and biases • To improve objectivity of the research (evidence based) • To increase reliability of the findings (A scale should give consistent results) • To improve validity of the findings (measure what it is supposed to measure) • Generalization of the findings (to what extent the findings can be generalized?) 1
Features of a good research design • Good design specifies the source and types of information relevant to the research problem. • It is like a strategy specifying specific approaches to be used for gathering and analyzing the data. • It considers research constraints-time and cost budgets. • In brief, research design must contain- (a) clear statement of research problem, (b) procedures and techniques to be used for gathering information, (c) population to be studied, and (d) methods to be used in processing and analyzing data. Important concepts relating to Research Design. 1. Variable. • Anything that can vary can be considered a variable. For instance, weight, height, age, income can be considered a variable. • For research purpose, various terminologies are used regarding Variable; a. Dependent and Independent Variables: If one variable depends upon or is a consequence of the other variable, it is termed as dependent variable, and the variable that is antecedent to the dependent variable is called independent variable. For Example; Height depends on age (sex). b. Continuous and Non-continuous variables: Phenomena Which can take on quantitatively different values even in decimal points are called Continuous variables but if it can only be expressed in integer values, they are non- continuous variables (in statistical language discrete variables ). For example: Age and number of children.
- Fall '16
- Parmeshwor vetwal
- Null hypothesis, Statistical hypothesis testing