PSCI 2301.02 W Exam 2 Study Guide - PSCI 2301.02w Exam 2...

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PSCI 2301.02w Exam 2 Study Guide Chapters 4-8 Term/Concept Explanation Chapter/Page # 1 Chapter 4 Pages 115-118 2 Establishment Clause Chapter 4 Pages 119-121 3 Strict Scrutiny 4 Miranda v. Arizona 5 Eminent Domain 6 7 8 9 10 Public Opinion 11 America's Fundamental Political Views 12 Conservatives 13 Liberals 14 American's Level of Political Knowledge 15 Political Efficacy The ability to influence government & politics 16 Sample Bill of Rights & Importance to the Ratification of the Constitution The 1st 10 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution, ratified by the necessary 3/4 of the states on 12/15/1791; they ensure certain rights & liberties to the people. The 1st Amendment Clause that says that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion." This law means that a "wall of separation" exists between church & state. A test used by the Supreme Court in racial discrimination cases & other cases involving civil liberties & civil rights that places the burden of proof on the government rather than on the challengers to show that the law in question is consitutional. Chapter 4 Page 123 Chapter 5 Page 165 Ernesto Miranda sentenced to between 20 & 30 years in priso for the kidnapping & rape of an 18 yr old woman. After being identified in a line up by the victim & questioned for 2 hours, Miranda confessed and signed a statement legitimizing his confession which served as the basis for his conviction & his appeal. Produced "Miranda Rights" a.k.a . "Miranda Rule" which is the requirement (articulated by the Supreme Court in Miranda v. Arizona) that persons under arrest must be informed prior to police interrogation of their rights to remail silent & to have the benefit of legal counsel. Chapter 4 Pages 138-139 Chapter 15 Pages 619- 620 The right of the government to take private propersty for public use- essential to sovereignty. The 5th Amendment neither invents nor takes it away; its purpose is to put limits on that inherent power through procedures that require a showing of a public purpose & the provision of fair payment for the taking of soeone's property. Chapter 4 Page 139 Civil Rights - KEY QUESTION obligation imposed on government to take positive action to protect citizens from any illegal action of government agencies & of other private citizens Chapter 5 Page 157 Plessy v. Ferguson - Supreme Court's Ruling (what was the precedent?) (1869) Supreme Court held that the 14th Amendment's equal protection clause was not violated by racial segregation as long as the facilities were equal, thus establishing the " separate but equal" rule that prevailed through the mid-20th century Chapter 5 Pages 160-164 Brown v. Board of Education - Importance of Response of Southern States Withdrew all constitutional authority to use race as a criterion of exclusion, & signaled more clearly the Court's determination to use the STRICT SCRUTINY test in cases related to racial discrimination. STRICT SCRUTINY:

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