Study guide Part2

Study guide Part2 - LOWER MOTOR NEURONS What are motor...

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LOWER MOTOR NEURONS What are motor systems? Behavior and the biology that creates it. A neural connection that hook up our brain w/ our muscles that allow us to move. These behavior along w/ their underlying circuits can be simple or complex. [IE: Reflex/Voluntary] Lower motor neurons are spinal cord and brainstem circuits. Name some voluntary and some involuntary motor movements. V : reaching, speaking IV : Breathing, posture, balance and spinal reflexes BOTH What are the 3 classes of movement? Reflexes- a simple neural circuit that resides in the spinal cord. IE: patellar reflex Rhythmic- includes a central component that regulates spinal cord’s oscillatory circuit. IE: fish swimming, us walking Voluntary- requires higher levels such as cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum to step in. IE: Catching a ball What are the 2 types of control? Hierarchical control organizes motor systems by levels Parallel control allows more than 1 pathway to be active at the same time Behavior is continuously motivated/guided by sensory input, even muscles have sensory endings. [Muscle Spindles] What is the difference between FEEDFOWARD and FEEDBACK? Forward uses sensory input to track an object so that you can make the proper muscle movements. Back uses proprioceptive input in your own body to readjust your movements. Name the 6 methods of study we discussed in class. Anatomical connectivity [anterograde and retrograde dye injections] Neurophysiology in vivo [sticking electrodes in live animals to record neural firing during behaviors] Neurophysiology in vitro [keeping a slice of brain alive in a Petri dish and recording activities w/ an electrode] Patterns of energy use in the brain [Using Positron Emission Topography or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging] Patterns of early gene activation and clinical correlation. Give all the types of muscle cells discussed in class. Smooth Muscle, Striated Cardiac Muscle and Striated Skeletal Muscle [w/ extra and intra fusal fibers] What is the difference between extrafusal and intrafusal fibers? EX : generate mechanical forces required for movement INT : aka Muscle Spindles, embedded in connective tissue capsules inside the extrafusals which allow feebback to the CNS about movement, each has 8-12 specialized fibers, sensory endings wrap around the middle of these and report how much tension is in the muscle. Describe the typical extrafusal fiber. 50-100 um wide and 2-6cm long. 1000 – 10 9 fibers per muscle. What is a muscle [extrafusal fibers] controlled by? Alpha motor neurons, which lie in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. They innervate 100-1000 fibers each, fiber can only be innervated by a SINGLE alpha motor neuron.
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Study guide Part2 - LOWER MOTOR NEURONS What are motor...

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