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Music 011 NOTE Lesson Objectives: recognize classical musicas a term used to describe European art music of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuriesrecognize the stylistic eras of Baroque, Classical, and Romanticidentify tonalityas the musical language of classical musicidentify Johann Sebastian Bachas one of the great Baroquecomposersidentify Frederic Chopinas one of the great Romanticcomposersrecognize the four principal instrument groups in a classical orchestrarecognize the importance of cultural surroundings in providing context for a work of artOur study will focus on the last500years, with emphasis on the late-seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenthcenturies.These were the years ofclassical music, a term we use to describe a rich variety of music that spans the better part of300years.We normally divide the music from these centuries into three stylistic eras:Baroque(1 600-1750),Classical(1 750-1 825), and Romantic(1 825-1 900).In tonality, there is one note that serves as the tonal center, called the tonicFor now, let me share a couple of short pieces by two of my favorite composers, Johann Sebastian Bach and Frederic Chopin.Johann Sebastian Bach(1 685-1 750) is one of the greatest composers in the history of Western art music.His music belongs to an era known asBaroque.The piece by Bach we just heardwas composed around1 720.
Frederic Chopin, one of the great Romanticcomposers.Let’s listen to Chopin’s Prelude No. 4in E minor, composed around 1 838.We’ll examine thefour principal instrument groupsof the orchestra (strings, woodwinds,brass,and percussion)Lesson 2The black keys are referred to as either sharp(#) orflat(b), depending on whether they are a half-step above (#) or below (b) the letter namenote.Ahalf-step, orsemitone, is the distance between two adjacent keys. Adjacent keys are any two keys directly next to each other, such as C to C# (white to black), C# to D (black to white), or E to F (white to white).Notice that two black keys are never adjacent keys. Awhole-step, orwhole tone, is equal to two half-steps. Examples of whole-steps are: C to D (white to white), C# to D# (black to black), E to F# (white to black), and Bb to C (black towhite).C - D - E - F - G - A - B - C. you reach the number8. That’s anoctave.And the reason they sound so much alike is that the second C is twice the frequency of the first C. Their frequency ratio is2:1.Two notes an octave apart sound so similar that we call the two notes by the same letter name, and if they are played at the same time, they sound much like a single two or more pitches sound at the same time.This phenomenon is known asoctave equivalence.chromatic scale
Piano KeyLocation on the KeyboardCimmediately to the left of the two black-key setDbetween the first and second keys of the two black-key setEimmediately to the right of the two black-key setFimmediately to the left of the three black-key setGbetween the first and second keys of the three black-key setAbetween the second and third keys of the three black-key setB