Essay questions Sociology test 1 - 1 Mechanical solidarity is the social cohesion or integration of members of society who have common values and

Essay questions Sociology test 1 - 1 Mechanical solidarity...

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1. Mechanical solidarity is the social cohesion or integration of members of society who have common values and beliefs. This type of social cohesion is most often found in premodern or traditional societies. The people found in these societies are more or less homogenous and there is little if any specialization or division of labor. They share the same sets of values and beliefs. Because of a strict kinship system there are fewer individual freedoms as far as potential occupations and mates. Organic Solidarity is social cohesion based on difference and interdependence of the parts. This type of social cohesion is typically found in modern, complex societies. In modern societies there is usually a divide due to the division of labor. Two people living next door to each other could lead completely different lives and not be able to relate to each other because they are specialized in different aspects of society. There are fewer shared beliefs in societies with organic solidarity and more individual freedoms. In relation to deviance societies will amend or correct for it depending on what type of social cohesion holds them together. Societies with mechanical solidarity typically practice punitive justice which involves making the offender suffer in order to reestablish the boundaries of acceptable behavior. For example, in a premodern society if someone were to steal food or possessions from a person in town, all of the town’s members would come together and publicly hang or chastise the person, thus sending the message that stealing is unacceptable. Through this collective vengeance they are further uniting the group. Another example in a more modern society would be a nation coming together on a highly publicized case to seek the death penalty for a murderer. Societies with organic solidarity produce social sanctions that focus on the individual. They are tailored to match the circumstances of the perpetration. The response to deviance in this society is rehabilitative. The goal is to transform the offender into a productive member of that society. An example of this would be sending a drug addict who pawned stolen goods for meth to rehab rather than to jail. The punishments in an organic society may also attempt to restore the status quo. For example, a company whose product malfunctions and leads to the death of a child will have to pay restitution to make up for the loss. Both organic and mechanical solidarity have different forms of social sanctions that work to reinforce the boundaries of normal socially acceptable behavior. 2. Postmodernism is a theoretical approach that rejects or questions the idea of progress and history. It strays from information that that is confined to cultures, races, traditions, or groups.

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