Psych 100 notes! - Psych 100 Remember to do research, SONA,...

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Psych 100Remember to do research, SONA, section 3Chapter 1 Psychology and Scientific ThinkingWhat is Psychology?oStudy the mind and behavioroSpans many levels of explanation, from biological to social influencesGain knowledge from each vantage pointoAttempts to answer many difficult questions (eg. Consciousness)“Mysterians”- believe that certain questions regarding humannature are unanswerable10 things that make psychology difficultobehavior is difficult to predictMeehl’s maximPast/future behavior connectionoBehavior is multiply determinedQuestion all single-variable explanationsoPsychological influences are rarely independent of one another“Multicollinearity”- overlap among different causes of behavioroPsychological influences are often unknownoPeople affect each other“reciprocal determinism”oMany psychological concepts are difficult to define (e.g., intelligence)oThe brain didn’t evolve to understand itself“paradox of reflexivity”oPeople in psychological experiments usually know they’re being studyProblem of reactivityoPeople differ from each other – individual differences in thinking, emotion,and behavioroCulture influences people’s behaviorEmic(insider) vs.etic(outsider) approaches to studying a culture’sbehaviorGreat Theoretical Frameworks of PsychologyoStructuralismWundt, Titchener, and others aimed to identify the basic elementsof psychological experienceWundt developed first “psychology” lab‘Map’ the elements of consciousness (sensations, images,feeling) using introspectionoIntrospection= self-reported, subjective mentalexperiences. This lacked reliabilityUnderscored importance of systematic observationsSystematic observations
oBeing able to get results that are standardized, not based on casual orinformal observations,oNeed to be repeatable under the same or similar conditionsoFunctionalismAimed to understand the adaptive purposes (instead of elements)of psychological characteristics (behavior, emotions, thoughts) andconsciousnessWilliam JamesoSaid mental events could be quantified via descriptionof conscious experienceoIndividual differences in purpose/ adaptation toenvironmentoPsychoanalysmFocuses on internal psychological processes (impulses, thoughts,memories) of which we’re awayShit you’re unaware of, subconsciousMaintains our everyday lives are filled with symbols, whichpsychoanalysts must decodeEmphasized the role of early experiencesUnconscious processesVery subjectiveoBehaviorismfocuses on uncovering the general laws of learning by lookingOUTSIDE the organism to rewards and punishments delivered bythe environmentpsychological science must be objective, not relying onsubjective reportsfounded by Watson, followed by SkinnerBlack box– their view of the mind: an unknown entity whichwe need not understand in order to explain behavioroCognitivismPurposes that our thinking (cognition) affects our behavior inpowerful ways

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Term
Summer
Professor
Gaither,G
Tags
Classical Conditioning, Intelligence quotient

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