Sessions_13_14

Sessions_13_14 - Operations Management Sessions 13 14...

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Sessions 13 & 14 Operations Management 1 Operations Management Sessions 13 & 14: Waiting Lines
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Sessions 13 & 14 Operations Management 2 Objectives ± Understand the phenomenon of waiting ± Measures of waiting-line systems ² Waiting time, number of waiting orders ± Impact of variability/uncertainty & utilization rate ± Formulae for waiting-line calculations
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Sessions 13 & 14 Operations Management 3 The Article ± The Psychology of Waiting Lines ² About experience of waiting ² Actual waiting time versus what waiting time feels like ± Laws of service ² Satisfaction = Perception – Expectation ² It is hard to play catch-up
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Sessions 13 & 14 Operations Management 4 Principles of Waiting ± Unoccupied time feels longer than occupied time ± Pre-process waits feel longer than in-process waits ± Anxiety makes waits seem longer ± Uncertain waits seem longer than known, finite waits ± Unexplained waits seem longer than explained waits ± Unfair waits seem longer than equitable waits ± The more valuable the service, the longer a customer is willing to wait ± Solo waiting feels longer than group waiting
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Sessions 13 & 14 Operations Management 5 Characteristics of Waiting- line Systems ± The time of the arrival of an order is not known ahead of time ² Example: The time a telephone call is made is random ± The service time is not known ahead of time ² Example: The time a customers spends on the web page of Amazon.com is random ² Example: The time a customer spends at the teller in a bank is unknown
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Sessions 13 & 14 Operations Management 6 Characteristics of Waiting- line Systems ± Which leads to : ² Idleness of resources ² Waiting time of customers (orders) to be processed ± Interested in evaluating: ² Average waiting time in the queue and in the system ² Average number of orders (customers) waiting to be processed ± Waiting time and average number are measures
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Sessions 13 & 14 Operations Management 7 Characteristics of Waiting- line Systems ± Also interested in evaluating: ² The average number of customers in the system. ² The utilization rate of the servers, e.g., the operator in the bank, the operator at the insurance company, or the server in a communication network. ± Understand the reasons for waiting.
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Sessions 13 & 14 Operations Management 8 A Deterministic System: Example 1 ± Questions: ² Can we process the orders? ² How many orders will wait in the queue? ² How long will orders wait in the queue? ² What is the utilization rate of the facility? Experiment # 1 Arrival time: Service time: 09 10 9 20 9 30 9 40 9 50 9 60 9 70 9 80 9 90 9
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Sessions 13 & 14 Operations Management 9 A Deterministic System: Example 1 Interarrival time Throughput Departure Waiting Time in Queue 9.0 9.0 0.0 10.0 9.0 19.0 0.0 10.0 9.0 29.0 0.0 10.0 9.0 39.0 0.0 10.0 9.0 49.0 0.0 10.0 9.0 59.0 0.0 10.0 9.0 69.0 0.0 10.0 9.0 79.0 0.0 10.0 9.0 89.0 0.0
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Sessions 13 & 14 Operations Management 10 A Deterministic System: Example 1 Graph #2: Total #in system: Graph #1: Total time spent in System per Job 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 04 06 08 01 0 2 0 TIME Jo b #
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Sessions 13 & 14 Operations Management 11 A Deterministic System: Example 1 Utilization: 90% Variability: 0.00 Average Throughput time: 9.00 minutes Average Wait in Queue: 0.00 minutes Average Number in system: 0.90 jobs
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Sessions_13_14 - Operations Management Sessions 13 14...

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