# Exam 2 Review Concepts.docx - 1 Review Concepts t Test for...

• 6

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 6 pages.

1Review Conceptst Test for Related Samples ConceptsUsed when you want to compare to means measured on the same peopletwo different times (Time 1 and Time 2). The variable must be scale (i.e.,interval or ratio).Repeated-measures research is needed when the data violates thatassumption of independence of errors. This happens when:You study the same individuals over time. That is, you have measuresfor the same individuals for more than one point in time. Longitudinaldata.Matched designed studies where the individuals in one sample arematched to individuals in another sample. Thus, the selection of oneindividual is contingent on the selection of another individual.AssumptionsDependent variable must be scale (interval or ratio)Random sampleNo outliersAssumption of normalityAssumption of homogeneity of varianceEffect size R2(r2 = 0.01 small effect, r2 = 0.09 medium effect, r2 = 0.25large effect)Confidence intervalμD=MD±t sMDAPA Stylet (degrees of freedom) = obtained t value, p < .05 if reject null hypothesis orp > .05 if fail to reject null hypothesist(7) = 3.61, p <.05ANOVA ConceptsAnalysis of variance (ANOVA) – analyze the relationship between adependent variable that is interval/scale and an independent variable (i.e.,factor) that is ordinal or nominal with more than two categories.Benefit of ANOVA over multiple t-tests is that it controls for experimental-wise error (that is inflating the test-wise error when doing multiple tests).
2For ANOVA the difference between means is the descriptive statisticscomponent and the F-test (f distribution) is the inferential component.ANOVA using variance within groups to model natural variation (or variancedue to chance). If the between-group variation is substantially greater thanthe within-group variation, then the difference between the means is unlikelyto happen by chance and can be attributed to the treatment (or differencebetween the groups).

Course Hero member to access this document

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 6 pages?

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Spring
Professor
Miller,D
Tags
Chi square distribution