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Exam 1 study guide - CHAPTER 1 1 6 classes of nutrients a...

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CHAPTER 1: 1. 6 classes of nutrients a. Carbohydrates – hydrate of carbon – found in all food groups except meat b. Proteins – basic sub unit: amino acid, regulates chemical reactions c. Fats/Lipids – provides structure to our cell membranes, energy source d. Vitamins – water soluble/ fat soluble, regulates chemical reactions e. Minerals – elements can’t make in bodies, find in foods f. Water – essential nutrient 2. Chemical composition of the nutrients a. Carbohydrates – Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen b. Fats/Lipids – Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen c. Proteins – Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen d. Vitamins – sulfur, phosphorus, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, other elements e. Minerals – own element, not associated w/carbon f. Water – H2O 3. Types of chemical bonds a. Covalent bonds – chemical bond created by sharing of one or more electrons i. Ex: water H2O hydrogen and oxygen share electrons b. Ionic bonds – the force of attraction between ions with opposite charges i. Ions formed when transfer electrons ii. Ex: Sodium Chloride NaCl – sodium gives one electron to chloride 4. Classifying nutrients a. Energy-yielding i. Carbohydrates ii. Protein iii. Fats
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b. Organic: contains carbon i. Carbohydrates ii. Protein iii. Fats iv. Vitamins c. Inorganic: does not contain carbon i. Minerals ii. Water d. Macronutrients i. Carbohydrates ii. Protein iii. Fats iv. Water e. Micronutrients i. Vitamins ii. Minerals f. Essential nutrient: a substance that must be obtained in the diet, because the body needs it, and cannot make adequate amounts of it to promote health i. Ex: vitamin c, certain amino acids g. Nonessential nutrient: one that is found in food and used by the body to promote health but not required to be consumed in the diet h. Conditionally essential nutrient: one that normally is nonessential but becomes essential under certain circumstances i. Ex: PKU – individual can not make an enzyme that changes one amino acid into another so a certain amino acid might become essential
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