French Final Notes - Chapter 5 Effects of short/long focal...

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Chapter 5: Effects of short/long focal length : distance between lens and point of focus. wide angle lens is used to create a slightl distorted image which causes everything to lean in. wide angle:short focal length. normal:middle-focal. telephoto:long-focal. Depth of focus/depth of field: the range in which things are in focus. Focus is refer- ring to how harp the object appears. Projection and matte processes : rear projection is a technique for combining a fore- ground action with a background action filmed earlier. the foreground is filmed in a stu- dio, against a screen; the background imagery is projected from behind the screen. the opposite is front projection. Matte work is a type of process shot where different areas of the image are photographed separately and combined in laboratory work. Camera angle and height: angle is the position of the camera in relation to the subject it shows; height is the distance of the camera above the ground, regardless of the angle. Types of shots (long, medium, closeup…) long shot is a framing in which the scale of the object shown is small: a standing human figure would appear nearly the height of the screen. medium shot is a framing in which the scale of the object shown is of mod- erate size; a human figure from the waist up would fill most of the screen. close-up is a framing in which the scale of the object shown is relatively large; most commonly a per- son’s head from the neck up. Camera movements: pan/panorama: movement rotates the camera on a vertical axis. the camera as a whole does not move to a new position. onscreen, the pan gives the impression of a frame horizontally scanning space. it turns its head left or right. tracking : dolly shot, the camera as a whole does change position, traveling in any dir- ection along the ground. tilt : movement rotates the camera on a horizontal axis. it is as if the camera’s head were swiveling p or down. Entire camera doesn’t change position. unrolling a space from top to bottom or bottom to top. crane : camera moves above ground level, rises or descends.
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Tracking in/out vs. zooming in/out: tracking is the movement of the camera. zooming is the movement of the lens. Racking focus : pulling focus, moving from foreground to background or background to foreground. the one in focus is clear while the other is fuzzy. Framing and offscreen space : the frame selects the slide to show us, leaving the rest of the space offscreen. if the camera leaves an object or person and moves elsewhere, we assume that the object or person is still there. Filmmakers can turn the necessary limitations of the frame edge to advantage. Long vs short takes : duration of a shot. either long or short. Take vs shot: take : one run of a camera that records a single shot.
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