Nutrition chapter 9

Nutrition chapter 9 - OVERVIEW OF VITAMINS Organic...

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OVERVIEW OF VITAMINS Organic compounds No energy content Occur naturally in foods Essential in small amounts Required for biological processes Body cannot make sufficiently Deficiency disease if removed; that is reversed if replaced General Causes of Deficiencies: Insufficient in diet Malabsorption Increased requirement MAXIMIZING VITAMIN INTAKE FROM FOODS Outer leaves and peels often highest vitamin content Darker, richer colors often indicate higher nutrient density Vitamin Losses - Heat, light, air,boiling, alkalinity, enzymes Preservation Refrigeration Freezing Avoid boiling in a lot of water Store airtight Minimize surface area Avoid alkalinity Serve cooking liquids with foods TYPES OF VITAMINS Travel freely in blood Excreted by kidneys Not stored extensively Generally not much toxicity LIPID-SOLUBLE = A, D, E, K Require fat absorption for absorption Require protein transporters in blood; often bound in cells Less excretion from body More potential for building up to toxic levels
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VITAMIN A RETINOIDS Pre-formed Vitamin A o Retinol o Retinal o Retinoic acid Sources: animal products Used efficiently by body CAROTENOIDS Pro-Vitamin A (precursors) o Alpha carotene o Beta carotene o Lycopene o Lutein o Zeaxanthin o Beta-cryptoxanthim Sources: plant products Less efficient use by body Must convert to active form VITAMIN A METABOLISM TRANSPORT : Retinol Binding Protein STORAGE : Cellular Binding Protein ACTIVITY : Rhodopsin – vision VITAMIN A FUNCTIONS 1. VISION AND EYE HEALTH 2. REGULATION: GENE EXPRESSION CELL LIFECYLE Growth Differentiation Turnover Cell-cell communication 4. REPRODUCTION 5. MAINTAIN TISSUES
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This note was uploaded on 05/14/2008 for the course NFS 207 taught by Professor Handley during the Spring '08 term at Rhode Island.

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Nutrition chapter 9 - OVERVIEW OF VITAMINS Organic...

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