Chemistry 103 semester review

Chemistry 103 semester review - Chemistry 103 semester...

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Chemistry 103 semester review Equations Examples 1. Sig. figs.( usually show up in the calculation, count 1 or 2 points each problem) A. Know how to count Sig. Figs. B. addition/subtraction: least decimal places C. multiplication/division: least numbers D. pure number has infinite sig.figs. Matter: heterogeneous : not uniform ex. blood, pond water homogeneous: uniform ex. purified water Compounds: unified in a fixed ration Elements: cannot be divided into smaller pieces using ordinary means. Physical properties: color, density, melting/boiling point Chemical properties: reacts with something, decomposes, if you can write a chem equation. Kinetic molecular theory: all matter consists of particles in constant motion Solids Liquids Gases Volume Fixed Fixed Variable take the volume of the container expand to fit Shape Fixed Variable Variable , takes the shape of the container. Particle Motion Rigidly connected (particles vibrate) Particles slid past each other, interactions occur. Particles move freely, little intermolecular interactions. Thomson cathode ray experiments: electrons exist and also provide the mass-to-charge ratio. Millikan oil drop experiment established the charge of the electrons. Rutherford gold foil experiment: some alpha-particles go through, some not, discovered the nucleus. Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus and the electrons are outside Atomic number: the number of protons in the nucleus Mass number: the number of protons+ neutrons in the nucleus Isotope: atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers.(different number of neutrons in its nucleus) Ex. 12 C and 13 C Percent abumdance/100 (mass 1 ) + Percent abundance/100 (mass 2 )= average mass of atom Ex. Determine the % abundance of 6 Li in natural lithium. 6 Li : 6.015 amu 7 Li 7.01600 amu Li 6.941 X/100 (6.015) + 100-X/100 (7.01600) = 6.941 Solve for X and that is the percent abundance for 6 Li
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Ions and polyatomic molecules: know names, formulas and charges Non-metals: states vary ( Br is a liquid and Cl is a gas) exist as allotropes( carbon can exist as diamond and graphite) Metalloids: Physical characteristics of a metal but the chemical characteristics of a nonmetal. Metals: solids at room temp. Conduct electricity, malleable and shiny. Groups: 1A: alkali metals: highly reactive especially with water 2A: Alkaline earth metals: found in the earth’s core 7A: halogens: very reactive 8A: Nobel gases: inert (non reactive) and rare Diatomic molecular elements: BrINClHOF Gases at room temp: H, N, O, F, Cl, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn Liquids at room temp: Hg, Br 2 Everything else is solid at room temp Chapter 3 Compounds: 1. Ionic: Atoms carry a charge cations + anions – 2. Molecular: uncharged entities; non-metals; held together by covalent bonds Properties of ionic compounds: -High melting point -Solution or molten salts conduct electricity. Solid salts do not -Held together by electrostatic forces (coulombs law) -many dissolve in water -are neutral! NaCl Na
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Chemistry 103 semester review - Chemistry 103 semester...

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